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KIN 217

Kin 217 – October 26 th Go HANNAH Paradox of Names -Why do Low Density Lipoproteins have higher density of TAG and Cholesterol than High density lipoproteins? - What happens when you centrifuge LDL and HDL -Apolipoproteins Apo-A -approximately 50-60% OF hdl MW Apo-B -20-25% of LDL mw Electrophoresis - decrease in diameter…HDL moves faster than LDL - The major apoproteins in HDL are Apo A, C, E - The only apoprotein in LDL is Apo-B00 - The mw of Apo-B is greater than Apo-A I or II - BUT Apo-B takes up only about 20% of LDL, while Apo-A takes up about 50% of HDL - The def of HDL and LD arise from the centrifugation results floating = LDL (between 1.996 to 1.063 g/ml) and sedimenting - Release of free fatty acids? o Hormone-sensitive lipase  Adipose cells have  Activated by glucagons  Inhibited by insulin o Free fatty acids in blood  Normally low levels  Serum albumin will bind most • Small pool exists - Diagnostic use of lipid and lipoprotein values o Most doctors don’t measure LDL cholesterol o Take total cholesterol measurement and use spectrometer..  They’ll measure HDL cholesterol  And then measure triacylglycerol (the backbone – glycerol) o Friedwald formula for the calculation of LDL concentration in plasma  LDL (mg/dL) – US – HDL – Triglyceride/5  LDL (mmol/L) – What we use (much smaller values) - HDL – Triglyceride/2.2 o Need to think about whether a test is feasible (if too expensive, not feasible) - Structure of glycogen o Series of figures from text o Long strings are 1 - 4 alpha chains… - How is energy injected into this process? o Glucose enters the cell  Phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate  Hexokinase in most tisues  Glucokinase in liver  Strong negative ∆ G - Glucose in the cell o G-6-P  Trapped in cell  (WHY? big negative charge on molecule…because of the phosphate!) - Fig 10.1 o What do we know about pyrophosphate? (When you see a rxn with pyrophosphate?)  It’s a high energy bond (resonance stabilization…huge negative G) …this will drive the formation of the UDP-glucose (basically setting
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