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Test one notes notes on the first part ot the course

Course Code
Peter Hall
Study Guide

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– Kin study notes
– In the olden days experiments were mostly trial and error like the pyramids
– Science is a set of systematic approaches to uncovering truth about
phenomena of interest
– Research process
– Basic research is aimed at uncovering new knowledge to develop theory
– Applied research is aimed solving a practical problem of some immediate
– The goal of quantitative research is normally inference and generalization
– Goal of qualitative research is often exploration of qualitative dimensions of
the phenomenon, and/or hypothesis generation
– Types of empirical research
oDescriptive; characterizing the nature of a phenomenon population or
other entity
oCorrelational; examining the nature and magnitude of association
among variables of interest
Cross sectional

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oExperimental; explaining the causal effect of one variable on another
variable of interest
– Types of research questions
oDescriptive – to describe a phenomenon or group
oDifference – to seek comparisons between or within groups
oRelationship – to investigate the extent to which two or more variables
co-vary or a re related with each other
o(analytic questions aim to examine some process elements in relation
to the phenomenon
– A variable is a characteristic or trait of a person or thing that can be classified
or measured
– Types of variable
oIndependent:- can be an attribute(pre- existing), or active
oDependent:- a variable that changes as a result of the variation of iv
oExtraneous :-any variable aside from the IV that may be responsible for
variability in the DV
– Scientific explanations have to be; empirical , rational, testable,
parsimonious, general, tentative and rigorously evaluated
– Common sense explanations have to be empirical , rational(according to ur
beliefs),testable, parsimonious, general
– Belief-based explanations have to be rational, parsimonious and general
– A theory is a set of interrelated concepts/constructs , definitions or
propositions that specify relationships among variables and represent a
systematic view of specific phenomena
– Purpose of a theory
oTo summarize existing knowledge
oTo predict phenomena that are not pbservable
oTo predict events that have not yet occurred
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