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Management Sciences
MSCI 211
Shahed Alam

MSCI 211 Notes Chapter 1: What is Organizational Behaviour? Organizational Behaviour: A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and structure on behaviour within organizations Behaviour is what people do in the organization, how they perform, and what their attitudes are Organizations are consciously coordinated social units composed of groups of people functioning on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common set of goals Aim is to apply knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness (manage well) Provides a systematic approach to the study of behaviour in organizations with the underlying belief that behaviour is not random Systematic Study- Examination of behaviour in order to draw conclusions, based on scientific evidence about causes and effects in relationships Building Blocks of OB: 1. Psychology 2. Sociology 3. Social Psychology 4. Anthropology 5. Political Science 1 Consistency in behaviour, if found, can be used to predict behaviour; it is a result of written and unwritten rules (ex. drivers mostly influenced by written rules of road; what we do when on an elevator i.e. turn to face doors is unwritten) Common sense is not always the same for everyone; if understanding behaviour were simply common sense, we would not observe many of the problems that occur in the workplace (ex. bullying in workplace) OB looks beyond common sense; it looks at relationships, attempt to attribute causes and effects, and base its conclusion on scientific evidence (i.e. not relying on common sense) OB has few absolutes (universal principles) if any Contingency Approach: Considers behaviour in context in which it occurs Predictions about behaviour are probabilistic, not absolute X given Y Z, where Y are the contingency variables; X does not necessarily cause Z on its own Research Methods: Dependent Variable- a response that is affected by an independent variable; the variable that the researcher is interested in explaining Independent Variable- the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable Moderating Variable- abates the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable Hypothesis- a tentative explanation (relationship) that is tested by the empirical research Correlation Coefficient- the relationship between the two variables Causality- direction of cause and effect Theory/Model- a set of systematically interrelated concepts or hypotheses that purports to explain and predict phenomena Sources of Research Insight in OB: Case Study- looking in-depth at single situations Field Survey- using questionnaires and interviews in sample populations Laboratory Experiment/Studies- in simulated and controlled settings Field Experiment/Studies- in real-life organizations Meta-Analysis (Aggregate Quantitative Reviews)- using statistics to pool results of different studies Managers who know about OB can lead people to greater organizational commitment/citizenship Individuals who know about OB can interact with other individuals in the organization better OB is for everyone line between managers and employees becoming blurred Competing Values Framework: Internal- inwardly, toward employee needs and concerns and/or production processes and internal systems External- outwardly, toward such factors as the marketplace, government regulations, and the changing social, environmental, and technological conditions of the future Flexibility- flexible and dynamic, allowing more teamwork and participation Control controlling or stable, maintaining status quo and exhibiting less change 2 Basic Organizational Behaviour Model: 3. Organization Systems Level- political science, sociology, anthropology 2. Group Level- social psychology, sociology, anthropology 1. Individual Level- psychology Ex. Charity is recognized on all levels 1. individual: giving time and money 2. group: comparative values 3. organizational: corporate social responsibility (CSR), tax credit credibility Challenges in the Workplace: 1. At the individual level Individual differences (diversity, personality, perception, values, attitudes) Job satisfaction (productivity relationship is questionable) Motivation Empowerment (managers giving employees responsibility for their actions) Behaving ethically 2. At the group level Working with others (interpersonal skills) Workforce diversity (gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, age and demographic characteristics such as education and socio-economic status) recognizing differences (instead of treating everyone the same) in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity and not discriminating against certain groups 3. At the organizational level Productivity (a performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency) Developing effective employees (see OCB) Putting people first (to generate a committed workforce and positively affect the bottom line give more control/say to employees, provide security, hire well, pay well, reduce status differences flatter organization, share about all organizational performance) Global competition (US, Europe, Japan, China reduce costs, increase productivity, improve quality sends jobs abroad / outsourcing enabled by developing technology/communications) managing and working in a multicultural world Ethics- Study of moral values or principles Effectiveness- Achievement of goals Efficiency- Ratio of effective output to input required to produce the work Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)- Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization goes beyond usual job description (ex. welcoming new employee and helping them when its not in your job description) Chapter 2: Perception, Personality, and Emotions Perception: The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment Important because peoples behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself; the world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important Helps us better understand how people make attributions about events 3 The Perceiver looks at something (target) and tries to interpret what he/she sees based on attitudes, motives, interests, expectations, past experiences (ex. if you buy a new car, you are more likely to notice that particular model on the road) 4
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