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Final Exam Review Summary of Chapters 1 to 10 in textbook. ..
Final Exam Review Summary of Chapters 1 to 10 in textbook. I took this class in Fall 2009.

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University of Waterloo
Management Sciences
MSCI 211
Shahed Alam

MSCI 211 MIDTERM 1 STUDY QUESTIONS MODULE 1: What is OB? What is OB? A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structure on behaviour within organizations Aim is to apply such knowledge towards improving organization effectiveness What are the challenges for OB the in 21 century? 3 units of analysis o Organization Systems Level (mostly corporate social responsibility) Productivity, developing effective employees, putting people first global competition Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) Discretionary behaviour that is not part of employees formal job requirements, but nevertheless promotes effective functioning of the organization (ex: constructive comments, respecting property) How to put people first? Pay well, give training, reduce status differences, share info about organization performance Global Competition Increase productivity, quality, face mergers/acquisitions or make alliances, shirts in technology, outsourcing o Group Level (mostly sociopsychology) Working with others, workforce diversity o Individual Level (mostly psychological) Managers/employees need to learn how to work with individual differences in culture, personality, job satisfaction, motivation, empowerment, behaving ethically How does OB make sense of behaviour? OB provides systemic approach to the study of behaviour in organizations. Behaviour not random! 1. OB looks at consistencies. People dont act alike, but there are certain fundamental consistencies Consistency is result of written and unwritten rules Behaviour in generally predictable and SYSTEMATIC STUDY of behaviour allows making reasonable accurate predictions 2. OB looks beyond common sense. Common sense not the same for everyone OB draws conclusions from data gathered in controlled observations, analysed in a rigorous manner beyond common sense 3. OB has few absolutes Different organizations have different needs MSCI 211 MIDTERM 1 STUDY QUESTIONS Not like hard sciences, which have universal laws 4. OB takes contingency approach Consider behaviour within the context in which it occurs Because people behave differently, does not mean we cant make reasonably accurate predictions just have to take contingency approach X is likely to lead to Y, but only under circumstances specific in Z What is the Competing Values Framework? The Competing Values Framework is a model that can help identify useful skills The range of issues organizations face can be divided among two dimensions o InternalExternal o FlexibilityControl InternalExternal o Inwardly, toward employee needs, production processes, internal systems o Outwardly, towards market, government, social environmental, technology FlexibilityControl o Flexible/dynamic, allowing teamwork, participation, seeking new opportunities o Control/stable, maintaining status quo, exhibiting less change Many skills required by managers can also be divided into the four areas, so the model What kind of research methods are used in OB? Case Study (focuses on one specific situation Field Survey (surveys employees in real-life organization) Field Experiment (questionnaires, interview in real-life organization) Lab Experiment (controlled setting) Aggregate Quantitative Reviews/Meta-Analysis (using statistics to pool results of different studies) MSCI 211 MIDTERM 1 STUDY QUESTIONS MODULE 2: Perception, Personality and Emotions What is perception? the process by which individuals select, organization and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment important in OB because peoples behaviour is based on their PERCEPTION of REALITY employees and senior management perceive differently What factors affect our perception? The Perceiver o When individual (perceiver) sees something (target), he tries to interpret it o Influenced by perceivers background, personal characteristics o Ex: buy new car, suddenly notice a lot more on the road o Expectations distort perceptions (stereotypes), varies cross-culturally The Target o Targets characteristic and affect what is perceived o Loud, attractive, novelty motion, size o Relation of target to background also influences perception o Persons, objects that are similar tend to be grouped together o Ex: New manager higher sales? The Situation o Context is important o Interpretation of same object will vary with the context o Ex: Wearing shorts at work, vs working shorts at home What does attribution theory tell us? Attribution theory tells us that when we see atypical behaviour, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused Rules for determining attribution 1. Distinctiveness (across all situations) Does individual act that way in ALL situations? YES internal NO external 2. Consensus (different people) Do other people act the same way in the same situation? YES external NO - internal 3. Consistency (same situation, across time) MSCI 211 MIDTERM 1 STUDY QUESTIONS Does the person act the same over time? YES internal NO external What are the shortcuts/biases people use in judging others? How are attributions distorted? Fundamental Attribution Error o People have a tendency to OVERESTIMATE INTERNAL factors, UNDERESTIMATE EXTERNAL factors when judging behaviour Self-Serving Bia o People tend to attribute ones successes to self, while blaming failures on external factors Selective Perception o Peoples selective perception depends on their interests, backgrounds, experiences and attitudes Halo Effect o Drawing general impression of an individual on the basis of a SINGLE characteristic o Most extreme when traits are ambiguous or have moral overtones, and when perceiver has limited experience Contrast Effect o Our reaction to one person is often influenced by our experiences before and after o Never follow an act with children or animals in it Projection o Tendency to perceive others according to what SELF is like o Ex: Im honest, so I assume everyone else also. Stereotyping o Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which the person belongs to o Different from halo effect (single characteristic); stereotype (membership in club) Prejudice o Unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group o Prejudice leads to negative consequences, including discrimination o Prejudice often starts with stereotypes and then has negative emotional content added What is the self-fulfilling prophecy? A person will behave in a way that is consistent with how he feels he is being perceived by others So peoples expectation determine our behaviour EXPECTATION REALITY
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