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Final

MSCI211 Study Guide - Final Guide: Msci, Nonverbal Communication, Assertiveness


Department
Management Sciences
Course Code
MSCI211
Professor
Shahed Alam
Study Guide
Final

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MSCI 211 Final Exam Study Guide (Fall 2009) (sledfreak17)
Module 6: Organizational Culture and Change:
1. Organizational Culture: The pattern of shared values, beliefs and assumptions considered to be the appropriate way
to think and act within an organization.
2. Layers of Culture:
a. Visible Layer
i. Artefacts
b. Hidden Layer
i. Beliefs
ii. Values
iii. Assumptions
3. Characteristics of Organizational Culture
a. Innovation and risk-taking
b. Attention to detail
c. Outcome Orientation
d. People Orientation
e. Team Orientation
f. Aggressiveness
g. Stability
4. How to create and Sustain a Culture
a. Selection (select individuals that will fit within the culture)
b. Top Management (Managers must establish and communicate the norms to others)
c. Socialization (Helping new employees adapt to organizations culture.)
5. 4 Culture Typology
a. Sociability (Measure of Friendliness)
b. Solidarity (Measure of task orientation)
i. Networked Culture (High Sociability Low Solidarity)
1. Friendly but not productive
ii. Mercenary Culture (Low On Sociability, High on Solidarity)
1. Productive but not friendly and sometimes inhumane.
iii. Fragmented Culture (Low on Sociability, Low on Solidarity)
1. Very independent individuals, and no real communal culture.
iv. Communal Culture (High on Sociability and High on Solidarity)
1. Friendly and productive (goal oriented)
6. Liabilities of Culture: when the shared values are not in agreement with those that further the organizations
effectiveness.
7. Change Agents
a. Internal Agents
b. Outside Agents
8. Resistance to change can come from
a. Individuals:
i. Habit
ii. Security
iii. Economic Factors
iv. Fear of the Unknown
v. Selective Information Processing
b. The Organization
i. Structural Inertia
ii. Limited Focus of Change

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MSCI 211 Final Exam Study Guide (Fall 2009) (sledfreak17)
iii. Group Inertia
iv. Threat to Expertise
v. Threat to Established Power Relationships
vi. Threat to Established Resource Allocations
9. Overcoming Resistance To Change
a. Education and Communication
b. Participation and Involvement
c. Facilitation and Support
d. Negotiation and Agreement
e. Manipulation and Co-operation
f. Explicit and Implicit Coercion
10. Unfreezing: Getting ready for the change that is going to be made, also minimizing resistance forces against this
change.
11. Moving: Actually making the change
12. Refreezing: Stabilizing the Change
13. Kotter’s Eight Step Plan For Implementing Change:
a. Establish a sense of URGENCY
b. Form a COALITION
c. Create a NEW VISION
d. COMMUNICATE this Vision
e. EMPOWER OTHERS
f. Plan for, create and reward short term wins
g. Consolidate Improvements
h. REINFORCE the Changes
14. Action Research: A change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a bad change
action based on what the analyzed data indicate.
15. 5 Steps to Action Research:
a. Diagnosis
b. Analysis
c. Feedback
d. Action
e. Evaluation
16. 4 Steps to Appreciative Inquiry (identifies the unique and special qualities of an organization to help
improve performance)
a. Discovery (Find out what people think these strengths are)
b. Dreaming (Speculate on possible Futures)
c. Design (Finding a common Vision)
d. Destiny (Discussing how the organization is going to fulfill its dream)
Module 7: Communication, Conflict and Negotiation:
1. Communication: The transfer of meaning among people.
a. Sender: Establishes, encodes, and sends the message.
b. Receiver: Decodes the message and provides feedback for the sender.
2. Barriers to Effective Communication:
a. Filtering (When the sender manipulates the information so that it is seen more favourably by the receiver.)
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MSCI 211 Final Exam Study Guide (Fall 2009) (sledfreak17)
b. Selective Perception: (Receivers selectively see and hear, based on what they want to hear.)
c. Defensiveness: When someone interprets a message as threatening they often try and inhibit the
communication.
d. Information Overload: Too much information for our processing capacity.
e. Language: Words mean different things to different people.
3. Non Verbal Communication: Messages conveyed through body movements, facial expressions and the physical
distance between the sender and the receiver.
4. Cross Cultural Communication Difficulties:
a. Sources of Barriers:
i. Semantics (Words mean different things to different people)
ii. Word Connotations (Words imply different things in different languages)
iii. Tonal Differences (Formal and Informal Styles have different tones.)
iv. Difference in perceptions (People who speak different languages have a different view of the
world).
5. Conflict: A process that begins when one party perceives that another part has negatively affected or is about to
negatively affect something that the first party cares about.
6. Conflict Resolution:
a. Two Dimensions Determine how a Conflict is Handled:
i. Cooperativeness
ii. Assertiveness
b. Five Conflict Handling Strategies:
i. Forcing (Competing)
ii. Problem Solving (Collaborating)
iii. Avoiding
iv. Yielding (Accommodating)
v. Compromising
c. Techniques for Managing Conflicts (General):
i. Problem Solving
ii. Developing Super-Ordinate Goals (Creating a shared goal that requires both parties to work
together.
iii. Smoothing (Playing down differences and emphasizing common interests)
iv. Compromising
v. Avoidance
d. Techniques For Managing Conflicts (Work-Related):
i. Expansion of resources
ii. Authoritative Command
iii. Altering the human variable
iv. Altering the structural variables.
7. Negotiation: A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon
the exchange rate for them.
a. Distributive Bargaining: Negotiation hat seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources and results
in a win loose situation.
b. Integrative Bargaining: Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win
situation.
8. HOW TO NEGOCIATE:
a. 5 Steps to negotiation:
i. Develop a strategy (Identify the BATNA Best alternative to a negotiated agreement)
ii. Definition of Ground Rules:
iii. Clarification and Justification: (Parties clarify and explain their original demands. )
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