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MUSIC 255 (3)


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Eva Ykee Benda

Sonata Form 18 Century view Sections: First Second Subsection: One main Period First main Period Second Main Period Keys: ||: I mod. V_____:|| ||: V______________V I I_______________:|| 19 Century View Sections: Exposition (A) Development (B) Recapitulation (A’) Themes P T S K X P T S K Keys: ||: I mod. V_____:|| ||: V______________V I I_______________:|| P= Primary Theme/ Group of themes T= Tansitional Material S= Secondary Theme/ Group of themes K= Closing Material Organicism  Concept that pieces of music should be ORGANIC  ORGANIC: describes a musical work in which all the parts relate to each other and to the whole like the parts of a single organism, derived from a common source  Goethe argued that artists should unify their works like a plant metamorphosis; all the parts should derive from a common source.  The organic relationships of themes, sections, and movements is more important than rhetorical structure or persuasive force  Motivic links contribute more to unity than a harmonic plan or conventional form. Sublime  Edmund Burke and Kant  “Sublime objects are vast in their dimensions, beautiful ones comparatively small; beauty should be smooth and polished; the great ought to be dark and even gloomy; beauty should be light and delicate; the great ought to be solid and even massive. They are indeed ideas of a very different nature, one being founded on pain, the other on pleasure.” Rondo Form Refrain Episode 1 Refrain Episode 2 Refrain A B A C A I Contrasting Key I Contrasting key I or I *The rondo can take several different forms, including ABACA (as shown), ABACABA, ABACADA, etc., sometimes followed by a Coda The Lied (pl: Lieder)  Solo voice with piano accompaniment  Origins in the 18 Century: o Texts by German literary greats o Amateur performance (syllabic melodies and simple accompaniments)  Types of poetry (lyric and ballad)  Forms: o Strophic or modified strophic o Ternary (ABA OR ABA’) o Bar (AAB) o Through-Composed  Each strophe has new music  This form is typically found in longer narrative songs, such as the ballad Erlkong  This form may incoporate declamatory and arioso styles as in an opera scene like Der Wanderer  Song Cycle  Example: Franz Schubert’s Erlkong (1815) cover on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Erlkong (1782) Strophic  Schubert typically uses this form for poems that have a single image or express a single mood  Each stanza (strophe) is sung to the same music  Example: Gretchen am Spinnrade, D. 118 by Franz Schubert o Poem is strophic Modified Strophic  Song structure that combines elements of strophic and through composed forms; a variation of strophic form in which a section might have a new key, rhythm, or varied melodic pattern.  The music repeats for some strophes but is varied for others  Depict contrast or change  Example: Winterreise D. 911: No.5, Der Linderbaum by Franz Schubert Polonaises - The polonaise is a polish dance in ¾ - It often has an eighth note and two sixteenth notes on the first beat - Some are vigorous and suggest a militaristic national identity Mazurkas - The mazurka was a polish folk dance that had become popular in Paris ballrooms - In triple meter, the mazurka features two eight notes (or a dotted eight-sixteenth) on a downbeat (followed by two quarter notes - The rhythmic pattern emphasizes the second beat of the measure. o Example: Mazurka in B-Flat Major, Op.7, No.1 The Nocturne  French term for “night piece”  Short mood piece for piano  Associated with early-19 century  Musical Features: o Quiet and contemplative o Slow tempo o Lyrical, embellished melody o Often arpeggiated accompaniment  Example: Chopin’s Nocturne in D-Flat Major, Op. 27, No.2. Ballades - Chopin was one of the first to use the name of an instrumental work - The ballades capture the spirit of the Polish narrative ballads and are infused in fresh turns in harmony and form Scherzos - The scherzos are not playful, but serious and passionate - The scherzos are also tricky and quirky, particularly in their rhythm and thematic material Virtuoso th th  Origins in the 17 and 18 centuries (opera house)  Derives from the latin term “virtus”  Broad meaning (initially): practical and theoretical  A solo performer with extraordinary technical skill  Pejorative connotations  Example: Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840) Charakterstuck  German term for “character piece”  Short piece for piano intended to capture a mood or suggest a scene/character  Evocative titles  Often publish
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