Study Guides (248,610)
Canada (121,635)
Philosophy (67)
PHIL 215 (12)

PHIL 215 exam review

37 Pages

Course Code
PHIL 215
Brian Orend

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 37 pages of the document.
PHIL 215Midterm worth 45Takehome Final worth 55Dont have to buy the book Attend lectures and its hard not to do wellLecture1Why do we care about ethicsGenerally good ethics lead to good businessMadoffPonzi scheme Pyramid Scam 147 years sentence middle class wanted to go to upperclass considered working legitimately vs going with a scam saved up 60k initial sum went to a couple of suckers billy and sally who each have 100k to start with SP 500 is about 65 over the past 100 years on Jan 1st invest 100k from billy and sally on Dec 31st pays out 30k each to billy and sally On the next year Madoff asks each of billy and sally to get 2 more friends On the next year Madoff has 600K from 6 ppl and only has to pay out 30k x6 His son turned him inWhat does it mean to behave ethically To gain insight from the 5 theories all have strengths but all have flaws1 Virtue2 Deontology3 Consequentialism4 Rights based5 FeminismWe shall use a plural of these above because1 Wisdom of multiple advisors2 Wisdom of NOT going with your gut instinctsintuition are usually from your earliest upbringingparental religious etcconditioned to simply be most comfortable3 Minimize chance of getting in trouble4 Chain vs TableChain approach start with some premise and slowly build one chainlink at a time to some conclusion However this is a bad argumentative strategy because its only as strong as its weakest link Putting all your eggs in one basket is not a good strategyTable approach surface of the table is the conclusion and the tables legs are the premisesVirtue Ethics Summary Key concept is virtue defined as an excellence of character This tradition is all about the development of good character over time moral problems are character defects Founding figure ARISTOTLE 384322 BC His ethical vision In life we must pursue eudaimonia ie our fullest development Eudaimoniahappiness flourishing human excellence This is PleasureInternal Goodsthe virtues External Goods good societyparents Aristotle said that if you were not bore into a good family your emotional growth would be stunted He did not believe in redemption He believed that if a bad upbringing would not allow any further development morally financial security healthsafety friendsrelationships beautySolve Moral Dilemmas by Consulting a Moral ExpertA virtue is not natural or automatic must be developed over time with consciousdeliberate effort like exercising a muscle must become a reliable stable part of your character benefits selfothers traits we praise in othersstrive to develop in ourselves are usually in a mean between extremes eg courage 4 cardinal virtues courage moderation prudence justiceStrengths1 Excellent verified account of general human happiness2 Actions comes out of character3 Attention to moral developmentthe need for continued moral practice4 Stress on socialrelationship context needed for moral thriving not just individuals making choices in a vacuum5 Inspiringly OptimisticHopefulCommon Criticisms1 Inspiring or Naive re perfectibility2 Illiberal Oppressive Overtones re character judgementsocial context3 ElitismIssue of moral Experts4 Too Selfish to be a Moral Code5 Vagueness of VirtuesCultural Relativity eg of courage6 Are Virtues EnoughDutyBased Ethics Summary Deontology Key concept is dutyobligationresponsibility Key differences from virtue ethics1 deontology separates prudencemorality whereas virtue ethics blended them2 deontology focuses on judging actions virtue ethics concentrated on character3 deontology is clearly strongly committed to universality virtue ethics is less so central figure Immanuel Kant 17241804 AD German Enlightenment Thinker his ethical vision through a strength of will we must bring our body or animal instinctuality in line with commands of our mind or free rationality When we do this we shall be truly autonomous ie ruled by our own selves not by God nor by nature Autonomy for all the big inspiration The Kingdom of EndsDeontologists are concerned with Actions and the Intentions behind these actions ActionIntentionGoodAction ObjectiveIntention SubjectiveChristianity 10 Commandments Love Golden RuleKant Categorical Imperative categoricalRespectmust be obeyed imperative rule commandKant was inspired by the Christian moral view However he believes that categorical imperative is already instilled within each of us we just need to selfreflect to find it He believes that motivating people with love is too demanding I have a hard time loving the people I should love much less my enemy Its too much to ask everyone to love everyone else Attitude of respect should suffice For an action to be morally permissible it must be both a in accord with the objective dutylaw of the Categorical Imperative and b motivated by the proper subjective intention of respect for everyones autonomy ABMorally OK Thus we solve moral dilemmas by determining the correct dutyperforming it with right intentioncrucial thing for this course is solving moral dilemma so in this context Kants solution is to use categorical imperative is to find the most important moral duty and to performing that duty with the right frame of mind More on The Categorical Imperative This is an innate command of reason which we must always obey lest we betray our true selves It is Kants secular reinterpretation of The Golden Rule ie do unto others as you would have them do
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.