Michael Pollan- “An Animal’s place”
• He mentioned discrimination as a similar case to animal. Discrimination has been
reduced as in a white man’s circle; they have started to include black, women and then
homosexuals (Pollan, 2002).
• Germany was the first nation to grant animals a constitutional right.
• Pollan disagrees with Singer.
• He commented on Singer’s saying “All people are equal”. Pollan said that all people are
not equal, some of them are smarter than others, better looking than others etc.
Peter Singer – “All Animals Are Equal”
• Peter argues that the basic principle of equality should be extended to other species such
• The extension of equality from one to the other does not mean that we must treat both
groups in exact same way but there should be an equality of consideration.
Eg- Women have the right to have abortion in certain circumstances doesn’t
mean that for the sake of equality, men should get that right. It doesn’t make
sense because they cannot have abortion. Similarly, giving dogs’right to vote
doesn’t make sense but equal consideration and treating them right is important.
• We would be on shaky grounds if we demand equality for black, women and other
suppressed groups while denying equal consideration to non-humans.
• If the demand for quality is based on actual equality of human –beings, we would have to
stop demanding equality. This is because humans come in different shape and sizes and
with different intellectual abilities and thus they are not exactly equal.
• However, from the mere fact that a person is black or women, we cannot infer anything
about the person. This would be considered racism or sexism.
• Equality is a moral ideal, not a simple assertion of fact.
• The principle of equality is a prescription of how we should treat humans.
• The interests of every being affected by an action are to be taken into account and given
the same weight as the like interests of any other being. • If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering
• We treat animals purely as a means to our end. The suffering we inflict on animals while
they are alive is an even clearer of our specism.
• Experimenting on animals and eating their flesh is, perhaps, the two major forms of
speciesism in our society.
Tom Regan – The case forAnimal Rights
• The system is wrong because it allows us to view animals only as a resource.
• There is no ‘more humane’way to treat animals. It is required that commercial animal
agriculture is totally dissolute.
• People must change their beliefs before they change their habits.
• The currency of Philosophy is ideas –their meaning and rational foundation – not the nuts
and bolts of the legislative process, say, or the mechanics of community organization.
• The idea ofAnimal Rights has reason, not just emotion.
• Indirect duty views: We can do wrong acts that involve animals, and so we have duties
regarding them, though none