PLAN103 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Cable Television, Market Failure, Fiscal Gap
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What are the different degrees of citizen participation in planning?
● there are three primary groups of citizen participation in planning; Citizen Power,
Tokenism, and Non Participation
○ Citizen Power
■ Citizen Control
■ Delegated Power
Discuss how public participation influences how planning is administered in the Canadian
● The Ontario Planning Act requires public participation, and it is more than just sending
out newsletters. Techniques used depend on issue, time, and resources. Several non
statutory approaches are used such as open houses, social media, surveys, and town
hall meetings. Citizens can take part in planning by attending public meetings and
voicing their opinion, both in meetings and to councillors.
What is NIMBY? Why do planners need to know about it?
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What are three common sources of municipal revenue in Canada?
● User Fees
● Transfers from senior governments
Which revenue source has traditionally been the largest component of a municipalities total
● Property taxes
What limits how municipalities are permitted to collect revenue?
● municipalities are under the control of provincial governments
○ property tax is inelastic and there is no immediate response to changing values
○ property tax is visible to taxpayers which makes politicians accountable
○ province determines the financial capabilities of municipalities, not entirely
Why is there a growing fiscal gap in municipal budgets?
● downloading of responsibilities from senior governments onto municipal governments
with little or no additional funding provided
● higher service standards
● growing aversion to borrowing
What are the differences between revenue, capital, and reserve funds?
○ money received and operating expenditures
○ assets such as stadiums, roads, city buildings etc...
● Reserve Funds
○ permissive vs regulatory
What is the difference between line-item and performance based budgets?
○ easy to control and understand
○ function like a spending allowance
○ inflexible and little incentive to save money
● Performance Based
○ better controls costs
○ lets you know if goals are being met
○ more efficient, less equitable
○ not fair, good programs can get cut
What are select principles of sustainable finance?
● budget must match nature of expenses and revenues
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