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Political Science
PSCI 110
Jingjing Huo

 State (Sovereignty, security, changing ideas to policies, institutionalized),  Benefits of State,  Legitimacy (Traditional, Charismatic, Rational Legal),  State Autonomy,  State Capacity,  Centralization and Decentralization (federalism versus unitary),  Regime,  Government,  Relating State Regime and Government,  Ethnic Identity,  National Identity,  Nationalism (form of national identity),  Relating Ethnic and National Identity,  Citizenship,  Emergence of Identity and Citizenship,  Globalization,  Ethnic Conflict,  National Conflict,  How Conflicts Emerge,  Levels of Conflicts (Exclusion, Ethnic Removal, Genocide),  Political Attitude (radical, liberal, conservative, reactionaries),  Political Ideology (Liberalism, Communism, Social Democracy, Conservatism),  Nondemocratic Regimes,  Authoritarianism (Characteristics),  Totalitarianism,  Economy under Authoritarianism (Democracy  economic development?),  Social Values under Authoritarians,  Coercion and Surveillance,  Corporatism,  Clientelism,  Personality Cults,  Personal and Monarchical Rule,  Military Rule,  One-party rule  Theocracy  Illiberal Regimes State and its Alternatives  State – organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory o Sovereignty – ability to carry out actions and policies within a territory independent of external factors and internal rivals, state needs to be able to act as the primary authority over its territory and the people who live there, passing and enforcing laws, defining and protecting rights, resolving disputes between people and organizations and generating domestic security o Security – provide security and order to enable sovereignty over its own territory, considered a weak state if they can’t independently secure the state o Changing Ideas to Policies – state should have capacity to convert visions into policies (requires professional army, education system, transportation system etc.) o Institutionalized – should be very difficult to change or alter fundamental structure of the state, reflects majority of population and infrastructure o Fails when there is a territorial disintegration – loses large chunk of its territory, monopoly of violence over a territory is gone, total loss of security and order o Core Definition of State – Monopoly of Violence over a given territory, have exclusive authority over state, institutions to turn political ideas into policy  Borders clearly demarcated  Exclusive source of power – just one national army, must not be competing groups (war load is identical to a state but they have competing forces to exercise authority over the entire territory – Afghanistan or Liberia are examples)  Benefits of a State o Ability to utilize the states economic resources efficiently o 1) Economic Resources  State will provide security so you don’t have to invest in your own security  You can save your personal economic resources for other thing o 2) Technological Innovations  Invest in new technology only if its long term  Lack of certainty and security lacks incentive for innovations o 3) National Identity  Higher incentive to contribute  Legitimacy  1) Traditional  Political organization is recognized as accepted way of governance of country by the common people  Sometimes it may be through history – for example; Monarch, King of Thailand provides necessities to general population  2) Charismatic  Doesn’t have to be in power for many decades  Personality of the leader is charming  Traditional is based solely on the pass of time, can’t imagine what country would be without him  Charismatic is based on policy’s of leader and personality  Both are vulnerable, most states now rely on rational-legal  3) Rational-legal  Ability of the state to implement policy’s consistently no matter who the leader is to maximize resources of the country  Most modern countries believe in government because they are able to get things done  State Autonomy - ability of the state to carry out own policy’s without the intervention of internal forces (other interest parties within the country)  State Capacity - ability of the state to provide basic and necessary services to the citizens (security, economic growth, law and order) High Autonomy Low Autonomy High Capacity China, Soviet Union– one party UK, Germany - Democracy, dictatorial state, can carry on government has to with no intervention compromise with opposition Iran – high resources and one to survive party dictatorship Low Capacity Iraq (Pre-invasion) Iraq (Post-invasion) North Korea – can’t feed all its South Africa – unsafe and no people but high autonomy law and order Somalia - democracy o Cannot conclude that High Capacity means High Autonomy, it can vary o Sovereignty talks about external forces whereas autonomy refers to interventions of interval forces o State capacity is distinguished by state military power o High autonomy are all dictatorships – less compromised with interest groups in the state  Centralization and Decentralization o Federalism vs. Unitary  Regarding whether power is given to regions and whether the power given to regions is protected by the constitution  Canada is a Federalism Country – provinces cannot take back the powers of the province without altering the constitution  Regime o Set of fundamental norms and rules of how society should be governed – abstract set of rules o Would include; system of government (presidential versus prime minister), rights and responsibilities for citizens (enjoy the rights of law and order, rights of entry, right to education, citizens duties to pay taxes), power and functions of state (what are the responsible of federal/provincial governments, under what circumstances can you call state of emergency) o Democratic or Authoritarian Regimes o Regimes are long term values hence making it difficult to change o Regime will be outlined in the constitution making it very difficult to alter, need majority of population to vote “yes” o Fails when there is transition between autocracy and democracy  Government o Group of people in charge of the country, individuals who lead the country for a short period of time o Easiest to change (weakly institutionalized) o Fails when there is a leadership replacement, election, cabinet resignation  Relating State, Regime and Government o Regime is fundamental soul of the nation in the constitution embodying long-term values o Government is responsible for designing policies reflecting the constitution (regime) o State is responsible for implementing the policies designed by government (state machinery) o USA – Obama is the government, military is the state, bill of rights is regime o Canada – “Government of Canada” logo refers to the state (organizations that carry out basic functions of the state – ministry of transportation, health ministry) o State is monopoly of violence over territory Identity and Ideology  Ethnic Identity – relationship to other people, similarities and differences between you and other people o Based on language and religion that determine ethnic identity o Other indirect indicators include cuisine, national sport, clothing o Concepts: What is my place in society? What are the main groups in society? How do I differentiate from one group to another? Who are similar/different to me? Who is outside/within my group? o Given at birth – difference between ethnic and racial identity  Racial is purely biological futures  Ethnic would be more richer they are more social, not biological  Ethnic unlike national is unique to each ethnic group  Racial is purely biological, Ethnic is social  Ethnic is more complex – in one racial identity you can have many ethnic identities  Ethnicity is cultural not biological  National Identity o Closely related to ethnic identity, often stems from ethnic identity o Ethnic identity is not necessarily national identity o Ethnic identity becomes political when it drives disputes for power and resources (ethnic groups push for more resources and power), ethnic identity becomes fuel o Ethnic identity becomes national identity when it drives disputes for territory, claim for independence or separation o National identity is when ethnic identity becomes so politicalized o A country with multiple groups is unique ethnic identity but one national identity  Nationalism – another form of national identity o Normally portrayed as something bad o Nationalism is intense pride and belief in own identity o National identity or patriotism is “we are great” nationalism is “we are great and we are greater than you” – self-superiority o Nationalism against another country can cause wars o Nationalism within country cause civil wars  Relating Ethnic and National Identity o Ethnic  political  national  First become politicalized and later national  Ethnic are not necessarily political, can remain purely social with no disputes  Ethnic differences can escalate into political when groups start competing for power and resources  Ethnic escalates to nationalist when  Groups take advantage of their own backgrounds to demand their own territories  National identities have to be political – it’s a necessary step  A group is nationally minority but locally majority within a given region  Citizenship  Relationship to the state – which country you belong to as a citizen, purely legal to identify your identity  Passport allows you to enjoy all the rights given to all the citizens of that country, you also bare all the states responsibilities such as; paying your taxes  Citizenship is entirely legal, not mental (different from nationalism), national identity you feel emotional attachment to a particular nation whereas citizenship is only legal  Emergence of Identity and Citizenship o States role is to homogenization – you should gradually start to attain national identity o State can use power to centralize ethnic culture through shared institutions/experiences (schools, language, common myth of the origin of country) o Ethnic differences  shared institutions and experiences  national identity  legitimacy  citizenship  Impact of Globalization o Dilutes ethnic identities, allows states to become stronger because ethnic identities are weakened by globalization o Somewhat flawed because it will weaken national identity as well o Dilutes national identities resulting in a weaker state o Net impact of globalization is ambiguous because the strengthening of the impact cancels out the weakening of impact  Ethnic Conflict o When people have disputes or armed conflict with each other for more political power or resources (conflict for who has more power, control, public works, education, pension etc.) o Between ethnic groups that struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each others expense  National Conflict o Use ethnic background to push for political independence, such conflicts are territorial o National conflict seek to gain sovereignty, clashing with one another over the quest to form an independent state  How Conflicts Emerge o Top-down Process – consequence of government policies that are not ethnic at all, particular policy triggered ethnic conflict  Land in Zimbabwe – violent confrontation between white and black people because of a policy of land  Implemented land reform strategy, land taken away from people with very little compensation which triggered confrontation between white and black  Low social economic people benefited the most – Marxist socialism  What about some of the rich black people?  Solution – revoke policy or change the government to solve the conflict o Most conflicts initiate through “Bottom-up”  Chechnya – long running ethnic differences  Conflicts emerge nationally as a long-running historical differences between groups  Not triggered or engineered by government policies  Start naturally through inter
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