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University of Waterloo
Political Science
PSCI 260
Ajay Sharma

PSCI 260 Exam Review Midterm Review Part one: - 8 terms, 5 five. explain their significance. - answers should be 5-6 sentences (no more). Give four points per question to get 4 points/marks. Examples: - The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council - Canada's first supreme court, 1867-1949.Addressed division of powers between federal and provincial government. - BNAAct - first constitution of Canada when it became a nation. Didn't provide for Supreme court. Characterized aboriginals/first nations as subject and not citizens. etc. - Lord Durham: introduced responsible government in Canada, wanted to assimilate the French and Roman Catholics into the l tradition, active union for upper Canada and the west **These 3 will not be on the midterm! just examples. Part two - use textbook: - Three questions: answer one -Answers must incorporate material from readings. You won't get penalized if you didn't but it‟s good if you do. - 2-3 double spaced pages, focus on overall themes Examples: - Constitutional evolution - how have they evolved. What was the first one? Dates. CCRF. British approach to more individual approach, increase of US influence on society. - Quebec Nationalism vs. aboriginal self-government. Both groups feel they are biased against. Part I Globalization: - Power of nation-state is in decline, a rise in multinational corporations and free trade agreements (WTO, IMF), Confluence/Intergration of business, culture and technology, as globalization increasing the power of the nation state decreases, very apparent in the developing world. Globalization plays a key role in the development of Canada, as we rely heavily on exporting to other countries TheApproaches to the Study of Politics From Lecture 1 Pluralist, Public Choice, ClassAnalysis, State-Centred Approach, Globalization, Responsible Government – Democratic core of the British system. Governor was instructed to choose his/her advisers from a group of elected politicians that could command the confidence of the legislature. First implemented in Nova Scotia in 1848. Responsible government is every legitimate session has a budget, throne speech. The government needs the majority of politicians to support the budget, if they dont the government has to step down The English-French Compact – the canadian constitution is seen as a treaty or contract between the founding provinces, between the English and the French. This theory does not include First nations. This contract doesn't mean anything legally but everything sociologically. From a legal basis it is flawed, the provinces had to legal right to enter into such a contract (power was since in the imperial parliment) Peace, Order and Good Government – POG is the main part of the Canadian government, it allows the federal government to do whatever it wants in the name of POG. EX. Trudeau enacted the war measures act under the POG clause to fight against the FLQ. JCPC restrained the POGG act Maurice Duplessis –An authoritarian Premier from 1935-1960. He taught the population that only he could protect the French from evil external influences (such as Ottawa). He governed with 3 main allies: the Church, farmers, and American capital. He was unconcerned about working conditions. Jean Lesage/The Lesage Era – Ministry of Education and ministry of cultural affairs re-established. Social services expanded (student loans and hospital insurance). Implemented Pension plan in Quebec and expanding Hydro-Quebec. Evolution of the Quite Revolution – 3 stages – Stage 1: Intellectuals, school attendance, voting, utilities: the government began to provide services. Stage 2: the churches influence lessens due to Maurice Duplessis (introduced capitalism and said the government will now spent money on Quebecers and the development of the country rather than the church. Increased political autonomy and more Capitalist policies are implemented. Stage 3: Francophone business class, Duplessis approach rejected, increased levels of government intervention: The English are marginalized in Quebec and move to Ontario. The government continues to provide strong social services. Charter of the French LanguageAct/Bill 101 – Only French language versions of statutes and legal judgments are valid. Companies with 50+ employees required to use French.Access to English schools restricted to children whose parents received an English Education. Most divisive policy introduced on language. It struck English from everything in Quebec. Linquistic tensions in Quebec – Anglophone dominance under increasing scrutiny, Immigration and language issues, Language of educational instruction, immigrants preferred to learn English. Gendron Commision: French should be the primary language of Quebec. Agness Macphail/Martha Black/Ellen Fairclough Person's Case – declared women to be “qualified women.” The decision by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council that determined that women were persons for the purposes of appointment to the Senate. Introduction of Birth Control M.V. H – 1999, Equality for gay and lesbian couples. The exclusion of same-sex couples from the definition of common-law spouse violates equality rights. The ruling did not affect the legal definition of marriage but applied only to cohabiting partners in a common-law marriage. 1929 Old age Pensions Act Political Culture Royal ProclamationAct 1763 – First Constitution of Canada, Provided protections for the French in Canada (cultural, linguistic, legal), In reality the situation was quite different as French Catholics were to be excluded from governing positions and try to be assimilated in to the British Ethos ConstitutionAct of Canada in 1982 July 1, 1867 – Dominion of Canada is born 1969 White Paper –An policy paper that tried to encourage First Nations groups to assimilate into Canadian culture. This has been called a genocide of aboriginal culture. This set in place the Residential school system. White Paper was introduced by Jean Chretien and Pierre Trudeau. Dismantled the estiblished legal relationship between the state of Canada the First nations peoples in favour for equality. They thought by not recognized “Indian” as a legal status then equality amoung Canadian would result Elijas Harper – First Nations Chief in Manitoba and a Canadian Politician. He was key in the rejection of the Meech lakeAccord which was a attempt at Canadian constitutional reform. The Charlottetown Conference – Division of legislative power, Residual power resides with federal legislature. Federal and provincial powers each have different powers. Two-Chamber federal parliament, a elected lower chamber and a appointed upper chamber (house of commons and senate). Acentral government that would take over provincial debts and various assets. Gaave power to the central government. The Quebec conference – Detailed “exclusive” legislative powers for federal and provincial governments. Peace, Order and Good governance established (section 91 and 92 of the constitution act) Part II 1. Constitutional Evolution  Key constitutional moments: Royal Proclamation (1763), QuebecAct (1774), ConstitutionalAct (1791), Durham Report (1839),Act of Union (1840), BNAAct (1867), and the ConstitutionAct (1982).  It was a time of political evolution in Canada. These moments moved further away from England and more independent as they went on.  1759 British conquest of Quebec  The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was the first distinctively Canadian constitutional document, created by the British colony of Quebec to protect the interests of theAboriginal peoples. Provided protection for the French in Canada (Quebec) in terms of their culture, language, and legal protections. However, the reality was different – the French were excluded from government arrangements and the French- speaking Catholics were assimilated into the “British Ethos”.  The Quebec Act in 1774 provided a new set of government institutions. It was designed to contain revolutionary tendencies that were emerging in theAmerican colonies. The policies of assimilation discontinued and it established a council that advised the Governor of the colony. Roman Catholics had freedom of religion and could be appointed to the council, and a civil law legal system was retained in Quebec.  The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the colony in two: Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec). Each had a governor, executive council, appointed legislative council, and locally elected assembly. There was „greater diversity‟in electoral candidates. o The elected assembly of each colony represented the views of the people but they had no real power over the appointed council – Britain wanted the governor to do its will, not that of the local assembly. This lead to rebellions that erupted in 1837 in both Upper and Lower Canada. The British government sent Lord Durham to investigate.  The 1839 Durham Report was a blueprint to solve the problems of the assembly-executive relations, and recommended measure that would establish a permanent system of improved government. He had two main recommendations: o Create a more democratic form of government responsible to the elected legislature o Reunite Upper and Lower Canada as a single colony. This was partly a last attempt by Durham to submerge and assimilate the French-Canadians which is why the French revile Durham to this day.  The colonies were amalgamated by the 1840 Act of Union (Durham‟s vision, designed partly to assimilate the French). British Parliament passed legislation for a united province of Canada: Canada East (Quebec) and Canada West (Ontario). Both jurisdictions would have equal representation, regardless of population which was critical for Canada East/Quebec. English didn‟t remain the sole language of government operation for long, the assimilation of French was not successful and French was recognized as an official language of legislature. The United Canada did not succeed because there was no central authority, separate legal structures, no effective legislation set in place and mutual distrust on either side.  The colony of Canada (Ontario and Quebec) and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were officially united on July 1, 1867 by the British North American Act (BNA Act), later renamed the ConstitutionAct, 1867. Soon Canada acquired Rupert‟s Land from the Hudson‟s Bay Company and eventually the other provinces were added to make what Canada is today: 10 provinces and 3 territories.  Amajor change since the central institutional structure was established in Canada in 1867 was the adoption of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982. This part of the ConstitutionAct (1982) guaranteed fundamental freedoms and rights (legal, democratic, linguistic, mobility, egalitarian, and limitedAboriginal) to individual Canadian citizens. Principles of the Canadian Constitution  Responsible government: a form of government in which the government/political executive needs a majority of politicians to support it, if they don‟t they don‟t ge
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