Lecture 2 - Identity, Ideology, and Culture Full in-depth analysis of topics covered in class and in the book. Lecture 2 started Jan 13, 2011 and ended Jan 25, 2011 with over 7 pages of notes. Great study for final exam and midterm!!!!!!

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Political Science
Course
PSCI 110
Professor
PSCI Jan 13, 2011
Identity, Ideology, and Culture
The Breakup of Yugoslavia
Each group who separated was roughly homogenous group
Therefore, it separated by ethnic lines.
Each group carved out piece of itself.
Separated because of conflicts in ethnic identity (National Identity).
The Big Question
Who am I = identity.
What should we do = ideology.
Who am I as well as what should I do = culture.
Between ethnic and ideology wars which one is harder to solve?
Ethnic conflict because it’s personal and you can’t change your ethnicity. Harder to
solve than any other political division. You can trace most wars to ethnic divisions
Ethnic Identity
Relationship to other people
(Difference between Race and Ethnicity. Race = facial features, things that are given at
birth; Ethnicity = Religion, Culture, language).
Has a diverse component.
Given at Birth.
Social, not biological
(Based more on language and religion/ social attributes not birth)
Unique to each ethnic group.
(ETHNIICITY IS CULTURAL NOT BIOLOGICAL)
National Identity
Often develop from ethnic identity.
(1) Often political: leads to disputes over resources and power. Difference than
ethnic identity as ethnic identity is not political.
(2) Usually Uniform: Within a given country. If not, demand for independence
increases. (State is at Risk).
Nationalism
Pride and belief in identity.
Belief in self-superiority (different from patriotism).
Nationalism against other countries = inter-state conflicts/ wars.
Nationalism against compatriots (own country men) = demand for independence
and civil war.
Relating Ethnic and National Identities
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PSCI Jan 13, 2011
Ethnic Political National (Dispute over territory).
Ethnic identities can be non-political.
Ethnic escalates to political when: groups compete for power and resources. Socials
and political divisions reinforce.
Ethnic escalates to nationalist when: groups compete for territory; Minority are
dominant/ concentrated in specific regions.
Ethnic National
Ethnic w/o National
French Canada (15.75%)
Scots in Canada (14.3%)
Basques in Spain (1.6%)
Catalans in Spain (16.9%)
Timorese in Indonesia (Malay, Polynesian,
Papuan)
742 ethnic groups in Indonesia (majority is
Malay).
Irish in the UK
Scots in the UK
Tamils in Sri Lanka (18%)
Kashmiris in India (70% Muslim in Kashmir,
13.4% Muslims in India
Kashmiris in Pakistan (99% Muslim)
Can national identity exist when ethnic identities are conflicting?
Yes, the US would be due to higher levels of ethnic diversities, but they all share the
American identity. Canada is second best.
In industrialized countries 1 common national identity is possible to be constructed.
It is successful depending on the strength of a state. If citizens don’t obey, the state
would eliminate them and force them to adopt the national identity.
Re-cap: Ethnic vs. National
ETHNIC: Unique to a group. Only becomes political when there is
competition for economic resources or political power. However, ethnic
identities are not necessarily political. Only becomes political when social
differences becomes imposed on political identities
NATIONAL: Shared across groups. Always political because government
power needs to have authority to set common institutions in order to create
a national identity. EX. Same school systems, language, etc.
Citizenship
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Document Summary

Each group who separated was roughly homogenous group. Each group carved out piece of itself. Separated because of conflicts in ethnic identity (national identity). Who am i as well as what should i do = culture. Ethnic conflict because it"s personal and you can"t change your ethnicity. Harder to solve than any other political division. You can trace most wars to ethnic divisions. Relationship to other people (difference between race and ethnicity. Race = facial features, things that are given at birth; ethnicity = religion, culture, language). Social, not biological (based more on language and religion/ social attributes not birth) Unique to each ethnic group. (ethniicity is cultural not biological) Often develop from ethnic identity. (1) often political: leads to disputes over resources and power. Difference than ethnic identity as ethnic identity is not political. (2) usually uniform: within a given country. If not, demand for independence increases. (state is at risk). Nationalism against other countries = inter-state conflicts/ wars.