PSCI 231 Final: Articles Summary for Final

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Fukuyama: The End of History
Main idea: different ideologies over different times, now the world is accepting liberalism as the
best one, so it is the end of history as liberalism is the new cool.
The notion of the end of history: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The notion that
mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path
to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social
organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian
societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man.
The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects
through a system of law man's universal right freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists
only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called "universal homogenous
state" found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe precisely
those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose
grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism:
1. Fascism: saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of
the West as fundamental contradictions. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology
by World War I, as people saw how it could lead to self destruction.
2. Communism: Due to receding class issue, the appeal of communism is lower in the
developed western world.
Are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that cannot be solved?
1. Religion: revival of religion due to the spiritual vacuum created by a consumerist
society. However, we can say that this movement would not become of universal
2. Nationalism: ranges from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and
elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Ex. The two World Wars. This
idea does not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic
What are the implications of the end of history for international relations? underneath the
skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly
high level of competition and conflict between nations.
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“The End of History?” concerns the rise and fall of major ideologies such as absolutism,
fascism and communism, and suggests that human history should be viewed in terms of a
battle of ideologies which has reached its end in the universalization of Western liberal
To evaluate whether, considering these specifications, history really has ended,
Fukuyama looks next at whether any core conflicts of human life remain that could only
be resolved by a political-economic structure other than modern liberalism. In terms of
mankind’s “common ideological heritage”, two such alternatives have been fascism and
communism. The seemingly self-destructive nature of fascism was revealed during
World War II, and its failure has deflated.
By extent of the Hegelian view, world-wide embracing of consumer culture can be seen
as a move towards economic liberalism, and political liberalism must follow. Fukuyama
expects this will result in a mounting pressure for change as alternatives to Western
liberalism are exhausted.
Fukuyama explores what the end of history would mean for international relations. While
the ideology has arrived, for the foreseeable future much of the world will continue to
cause conflict as they move there. With the leading countries in a post-history state it is
commonly thought there will still be little result because national interest is always a
much stronger force than ideological theory
Communism is losing its power as a truly excepted ideology, and without a significant
alternative a common market will continue to grow and large scale ideological conflict
will fade away. But Fukuyama suggests that conflict will continue on another level.
Those areas that have not reached the end of history will continue to be in conflict with
those that have. Nationalist conflict and ethnic conflict have not played themselves out
yet, and Fukuyama predicts they will result in increases in terrorism. As we move to
economic conflict and environmental issues instead of the powerful and inspiring
conflicts of history, Fukuyama supposes a state of tediousness may even “serve to get
history started once again.”
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Science and Technology Policies, National Competitiveness, and the Innovation
Carin Holroyd
The rapid and unprecedented reorientation of the global economy in recent decades has
compounded the importance of national competitiveness and innovation strategies. Governments
play a critical role in promoting science and technology, as innovation requires a level of
investment not easily derived from the private sector.
With much of the world's manufacturing shifting to Asia, political support in industrialized
countries has moved away from heavy industry in favour of nanotechnology, biotechnology,
digital enterprises, and alternative energy solutions. This paper comments on the existing
methods of analysing national science and technology policies, and makes an assessment of the
innovation strategies adopted by three very different countries – Japan, Canada and Nigeria.
In particular, it illustrates how nations at varying stages of development have responded to
modern scientific and technology opportunities and challenges. The paper concludes that the
widening ‘digital divide’ requires a significant response from governments and international
institutions in order to create greater and more equitable global prosperity.
Japan, Canada and Nigeria – and their approaches to 21st century innovation:
leader in scientific and technological innovation
three Science and Technology plans between 1996 – 2006
Japan has emerged as a world leader in government-led scientific and technological
development. Its investment in research is among the highest of the industrialized nations
and the leadership provided by national politicians remains impressive.
The corporate world, even more importantly, invests heavily in both pure and applied
research and has provided world-leading and commercialized products in fields as
diverse as photovoltaic cells, nanotechnology, industrial and domestic robots, mobile
Internet, and biotechnology.
The country's stronger and more consistent economic performance in recent years is due,
at least in significant measure, to a pattern of national innovation and the
commercialization of science and technology. Perhaps of even greater significance, the
country's large investments in pure science and in academic-government-industry
partnerships have established a foundation for the hoped for long-term economic
transformation and competitiveness.
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