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Psych 101 Exam 1 Complete Summary Notes

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Amanda Clark

Textbook Notes Psychology: 9 Edition in Modules Sept. 23/10 Module 1 Wundt – first psychological laboratory Structuralism – Titchener (Wundt’s student) -discover the structure of the mind through introspection: reporting elements of experience Functionalism – James -how our mental and behavioural processes function (thinking was developed because it as adaptive – for survival) Behaviourism – Watson and Skinner -an objective science (observe people’s behaviours as they respond to different things) Humanistic psychology – rather than early childhood, emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth (how we need love and acceptance) Cognitive neuroscience – study of brain activity linked with mental activity Psychology – science of behaviour and mental processes Biopsychosocial approach – considers the influences of biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors in analysis Module 2 Hindsight bias – tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it -known as the “I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon” -common sense more easily describes what has happened than what will happen Critical thinking – examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence Culture – enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people Module 3 Theory – explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events Hypothesis – a testable prediction, often implied by theory Textbook Notes Psychology: 9 Edition in Modules Sept. 23/10 Module 4 Sensory neurons → brain/spinal cord (interneurons) → motor neurons -dendrites listen (receive info), axons speak (sends message to other neurons or muscles/glands) -myelin sheath insulates axons and helps speed their impulses -multiple sclerosis (MS) may result if the myelin sheath degenerates -communication to muscles slows, with eventual loss of muscle control Action potential – a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon -resting potential – positive outside/negative inside state (of axons) -all-or none-response – a strong stimulus (ex. A slap in the face rather than a tap) can trigger more neurons to fire and to fire more often, but it doesn’t affect the action potential’s strength or speed Synapse – meeting point/junction between neurons Neurotransmitters – chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons -when flooded with opiate drugs (ex. heroin), the brain may stop producing its own natural opiates Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – sensory/motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body -has 2 components: somatic (enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles) and autonomic (controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs – ex. Heartbeat, digestion, etc.) -autonomic is composed of sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic N.S. -SNS (arouses and expends energy); Para. NS (calms the body, conserving energy) -neurons are the nervous system’s building blocks Nerves – bundled axons that form “cables” connecting CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs Module 6 Plasticity – brain’s ability to change (especially during childhood) after damage -severed neurons usually do not regenerate (but some neural tissue can reorganize after damage) Roger Sperry – the mind and the brain is a “holistic system” Textbook Notes Psychology: 9 Edition in Modules Sept. 23/10 Module 7 Consciousness – our awareness of ourselves and our environment “The mind is what the brain does.” ~Marvin Minsky Dual processing – principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscience and unconscious track Selective attention – the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Inatttentional blindness – failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere Change blindness – failing to notice changes in the environment Pop-out – when stimuli are distinct, it draws our attention (ex. 1 smiling person in a frowning crowd) Module 8 Melatonin – sleep-inducing hormone -artificial light delays sleep (we may adopt something closer to a 25-hour day rather than 24-hour) Sleep – periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness (unlike unconsciousness from a coma)  helps us recuperate (restore and repair brain tissue, muscles, etc.)  restores and rebuilds our memories of the day’s experiences  feeds creative thinking (dreams can inspire, sleep can boost our ability to think and learn)  plays a role in the growth process Hallucinations – false sensory experiences without sensory/visual stimulus (during stage 1 of sleep) -REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep – the body is internally aroused but externally calm Insomnia – reoccurring problems in falling or staying asleep -“quick fixes” such as sleeping pills and alcohol may aggravate the problem Narcolepsy – sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks (actual brain disease) Sleep apnea – sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep Night terrors – sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified Textbook Notes Psychology: 9 Edition in Modules Sept. 23/10 Module 13 Teratogen – (ex. Alcohol may cause fetal alcohol syndrome) Habituation – decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation (as infants become familiar with repeated exposure of certain things, their interest wanes and they look away sooner) -this boredom with familiar stimuli gives us a way of knowing what infants see/remember Module 14 Brain development Age Brain cells/area that develops/grows most rapidly; those that: At birth Enable you to walk, talk, and remember Ages 3-6 Enable rational planning (frontal lobe) After age 6 Are linked with thinking, memory, and language Maturation – orderly sequence of biological growth processes (relatively uninfluenced by experiences) -ex. Crawling before walking, using nouns before adjectives “Maturation sets the basic course of development; experience adjusts it.” -genes play a major role in motor development -ex. Twins typically beg
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