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Psych 101 Final Exam Review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Winter

Description
Introduction to Psychology Module 1 - Before 300 B.C., Aristotle theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality - Wundt seeked to measure “atoms of the mind” o Started the first psychological lab - 2 early schools were structuralism and functionalism - Titchener aimed to discover the mind’s structure o Engaged ppl in self-reflective introspection (looking inward) o However, his study waned with time Behaviourism the view that psychology…. 1. Should be an objective science that 2. Studies behavior without reference to mental processes - Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2 Humanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people - Wundt and Tichener focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings - James engaged in introspective examination of the stream of consciousness and of emotion - Early definition of psychology was “the science of mental life” - In 1920s, Watson and Skinner dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “the scientific study of observable behaviour” o Science is rooted in observation. You can’t observe a sensation, a feeling, or a thought, but you can observe and record ppl’s behaviour as they respond to different situation - The behaviourists were 1 of 2 major forces in psychology well into the 1960s nd - 2 major force was Freudian psychology o Emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behaviour - In 1960s, the definition of psychology was rejected by humanistic psychologists o Rogers and Maslow found Freudian psychology and behaviourism too limiting o They focused on current environmental influences that can nurture or limit our growth potential, and to the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied - Another group in the 1960s rebelled as well o Termed cognitive revolution  Led the field back to its early interest in mental processes (i.e. the importance of how our mind processes and retains info) Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) Psychology the science of behaviour and mental processes Nature-nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours. Today’s science sees traits and behaviours arising from the interaction of nature and nurture Natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations - Cognitive neuroscience , an interdisciplinary study, has enriched our understanding of ways to understand ourselves and to treat disorders such as depression - Psychology is the science of behaviour and mental processes o Behaviour is anything an organism does – any action we can observe and record (yelling, smiling, blinking) o Mental processes are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behaviour – sensations, perceptions dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings Psychology’s 3 Main Levels of Analysis Levels of analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social- cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis 1. Biological influences: o Natural selection of adaptive traits o Genetic predispositions responding to environment o Brain mechanisms o Hormonal influences 2. Psychological influences: o Learned fears and other learned expectations o Emotional responses o Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations 3. Social-cultural influences: o Presence of others o Cultural, societal, and family expectations o Peer and other group influences o Compelling models (i.e. media) - Together, they create behaviour or mental process (refer to FIGURE 1.1 pg 8) Psychology’s Main Subfields - The tribe of psychology is united by a common quest: describing and explain behaviour and the mind underlying it Biological psychologists explore the links between brain and mind Developmental psychologists study our changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive psychologists experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems Personality psychologists investigate our persistent traits Social psychologists explore how we view and affect one another Basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems o i.e. use psychology’s concepts and methods in the workplace to train employees, and boost morale and productivity Counseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being o help cope with challenges and crises and to improve their personal and social functioning Clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats ppl with psychological disorders o bother counseling and clinical administer and interpret tests, provide counseling and therapy, and sometimes conduct basic and applied research Psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (e.g. drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy o are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and treat physical causes of psychological disorders Positive psychology the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive o explores “positive emotions, positive character traits, and enabling institutions” Community psychology a branch of psychology that studies how ppl interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups o work to create “social and physical environments that are healthy for all Module 2 3 phenomena – hindsight bias, judgmental overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events – illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense Hindsight bias the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (aka I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon) Critical thinking thinking that doesn’t blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions - an experiment’s purpose isn’t to re-create the exact behaviours of everyday life but to test theoretical principles o it’s the resulting principles – not the specific findings – that help explain everyday behaviours - Point to remember: psychological science focuses less on particular behaviours than on seeking general principles that help explain many behaviours Culture the enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of ppl and transmitted from one generation to the next - Point to remember: even when specific attitudes and behaviours vary by gender or across cultures, the underlying processes are much the same Is it right to place the well-being of humans above that of animals? Informed consent an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate Debriefing the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants - Psychology is not free of value judgements Module 3 How do Psychologists ask and answer questions? - Scientific method – a self-correcting process for evaluating ideas with observation and analysis Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events - A good theory produces testable predictions, called hypotheses - Theories can bias our observations - A theory Is useful/good if it o Organizes a range of self-reports and observations, and o Implies predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications Hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory Operational definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables - i.e. human intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures” Replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances Why is replication important? Psychologists watch eagerly for new findings, but they also proceed with caution – by awaiting other investigators’ repeating the experiment to see if the finding will be confirmed (the result replicated). - you can test hypotheses and refine theories using… o descriptive methods which describe behaviours, often through case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations o correlational methods which associate different factors o experimental methods which manipulate factors to discover their effects Psychologists use… 1. case studies (analyses of special individuals) a. among the oldest research methods b. Point to remember: individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas. What’s true of all of us can be glimpsed in any one of us. But to discern the general truths that cover individual cases, we must answer questions with other research methods. 2. naturalistic observation (descriptive method; records behaviour in natural environments) a. Naturalistic observation doesn’t explain behaviour. It describes it. b. It doesn’t control other factors that may influence behaviour. It’s one thing to observe the pace of life in various places, but another to understand what makes some ppl walk faster than others. 3. surveys and interviews (by asking people questions) Case study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Naturalistic observation observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group - looks at many cases in less depth - wording effects o even subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects  i.e. ppl are more approving of “aid to the needy” than of “welfare” Population all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn (Note: except for national studies, this doesn’t refer to a country’s whole population) Random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion - prevent sampling bias which occurs when a survey group is not representative of the population being studied - point to remember: the best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample - Point to remember: before accepting survey findings, think critically: Consider the sample. You cannot compensate for an unrepresentative sample by simply adding more ppl Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Correlation coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1) - Point to remember: a correlation coefficient helps us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which two things relate Scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation) What are positive and negative correlations, and why do they enable prediction but not cause- effect explanation? - Describing behaviour is a first step toward predicting it - Naturalistic observations and surveys often show us that one trait or behaviour is related to another o In such cases, the two correlate - A statistical measure (the correlation coefficient) helps us figure how closely two things vary together, and thus how well either one predicts the other o Knowing how much aptitude test scores correlate with school success tells us how well the scores predict school success - Refer to FIGURE 3.2 pg 31 (perfect positive correlation, no relationship, perfect negative correlation on the scatterplot) Correlation and causation - Length of marriage positively correlates with hair loss in men. Does this mean that marriage cause men to lose their hair (or that balding men make better husbands)? o In this case, as in many others, a third factor obviously explains the correlation: Golden anniversaries and baldness both accompany aging o Refer FIGURE 3.4 pg 34 - The point to remember: association does not prove causation. o Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship but does not prove such. Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors Experiments enable researchers to isolate the effects of 1 or more factors by… 1. Manipulating the factor(s) of interest and 2. Holding constant (“controlling”) other factors Experimental group in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to vs one version of the independent variable Control group in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment Random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups Double-blind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies Placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent - What measure do researchers use to prevent the placebo effect from confusing their results? o Use of a control group, which is given a placebo and not the real treatment, allows results to be compared to the group that is given the real treatment, thus demonstrating whether the real treatment produces better results than belief in that treatment The point to remember: unlike correlational studies, which uncover naturally occurring relationships, an experiment manipulates a factor to determine its effect Independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied - The drug dosage for Viagra. None vs peak dose Confounding variable a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment - Men’s age, weight, and personality - Random assignment controls for possible confounding variables Dependent variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable - The effect of the independent variable, the drug dosage - Both variables are given precise operational definitions, which specify the procedures that manipulate the independent variable (the precise drug dosage and timing in this study) or measure the dependent variable (the questions that assessed the men’s responses) *Recap: A variable is anything that can vary. Experiments aim to manipulate an independent variable, measure a dependent variable, and allow random assignment to control all other variables (i.e. confounding variables). An experiment has at least 2 different conditions: an experimental condition and a comparison or control condition. Random assignment works to equate the groups before any treatment effects occur. mode the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution mean adding the scores and dividing by the number of scores median the middle score - Summarize data using some measure of central tendency, a single score that represents a whole set of scores o Simplest is mode; most common is mean Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard deviation (formula) a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Normal curve (normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes In deciding when it’s safe to generalize from a sample, we should keep 3 principles in mind: 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples 2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable 3. More cases are better than fewer Statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - The point to remember: statistical significance indicates the likelihood that a result will happen by chance. But this doesn’t say anything about the importance of the result Learning Objectives: Lecture ~ Introduction Content of Psychology 1. Describe the basic model of psychology and the major variables. 2. Describe the ABC's of psychology. Perspectives of Psychology 3. Describe the different perspectives and explain their focus on human experience. Science of Psychology 4. Describe the goals of science. 5. Explain the scientific method of refinement. 6. Describe the criteria of science. 7. Describe and explain correlational and causal relationships among variables. a NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Lecture Outline THE NEURON - Responsible for thoughts, feelings and actions Three Parts: 1. Soma a. Body of the cell 2. Dendrites a. Fibres that come out of the cell body 3. Axon (refer to diagram) a. The tail + terminal endings - Afferent (enters the neuron) - Efferent (leaves by the axon) Three Kinds: Sensory, Motor, Interneurons 3 Kinds of Neurons Direction From (dendrite) To (axon) Quantity Sensory Neurons Afferent Sensory Organs CNS 2-3 million Motor Neurons Efferent CNS Muscles and 2-3 million glands Interneurons Neuron Neuron 10-100 billion NEURONAL CONDUCTION The Electrical Component - Galvani puts a frog’s heart in a beaker with water and attaches it to an electrolyte o The heart starts beating once electric current goes through it - He uses another beaker and pours the water from the other beaker into the new one o The heart starts beating The Chemical Component - ………………….. - Neurons talk to each other electrically and chemically After Transmission - SEARCH UP LOEWI and GALVANI - Neurons have myelin sheath where the electric current travels myelin by myelin towards the end of the neuron - At the terminal endings are sacs, they contain a electrical signal where they’ll rupture past a small gap towards another neuron o Neuron can sends inhibitors that will cause other neurons to be put to sleep - Every neurotransmitter has an enzyme that is specifically capable of coming in and breaking down neurotransmitters o i.e. you want a drink a water and did so. Now you want to stop. - Once broken down, they can be used to create new transmitters - After molecule’s done by and released back to synaptic gap, the sac might take it back again (uses same one again) - Basically, 3 things that could happen to neurotransmitter o It can bind o Enzyme can bring it down o Reuptaked takes place NEUROTRANSMITTERS Examples of Neurotransmitters - Acetylcholine (Ach) o Involved in memory processes in CNS o Degeneration of Ach neurons implicated in Alzheimers o Involved in muscle contraction in PNS - Dopamine o Too high in schizophrenia o Too low in parkinson’s disease - Epinephrine and Norepinephrine o Classic example of antagonistic transmitter o Associated with arousal and mood o Same chemical used in endocrine system (adrenaline and noadrenaline) - Endorphins o Nature’s pain-killers/”natural” morphine o Also involved in emotions in limbic system  i.e. anxiety, fear, tension, pleasure, and pain Neurotransmitters and Addiction - when it suspects endorphins are about to rise beyond necessary o the brain begins to prepare for it o it’ll release its enzymes and start to take it away o however, when it takes too much endorphins away, below normal levels, anxiety and other problems occur o as such, you’ll feel like taking more o in the long run, you’ll have to take a larger amount of the drug in order to reach the same level as high as when you first started doing the drug Nervous system 1. peripheral system a. spine and cranial nerves b. Somatic system i. Connects central system to voluntary muscles 2. central system a. brain, spinal cord b. Autonomic system i. Connects central system to nonvoluntary muscles and glands 1. Sympathetic system a. Arousing; readies body for activity, use of energy 2. Parasympathetic system a. Calming; readies body for restoration of energy - The 4 “F’s” of the sympathetic nervous system 1. Fight 2. Flight 3. Fear 4. Fornication (sex) TEXTBOOK Module 4 Biological perspective concerned with the links between biology and behaviour. Includes psychologists working in neuroscience, behaviour genetics, and revolutionary psychology. These researchers may call themselves behavioural neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavioural geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists. Neuron a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system Dendrites a neuron’s busy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. Axon the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands. - REFER TO PAGE 48 FIGURE 4.2 Myelin sheath a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next Action potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse - Myelin is laid down up to ~age 25, neural efficiency, judgment, and self-control grow - If myelin sheath degenerates, multiple sclerosis results: communication to muscles slows, with eventual loss of muscle control - Neuron transmit msgs when stimulated by signals from our senses or triggered by chemical signals from neighbouring neurons - In response, a neuron fires an impulse, called action potential o Information travels from dendrite  axon  axon’s terminal branches - Measure brain activity in milliseconds(thousandths/sec) and a computer activity in nanoseconds (billionth/sec) o Hence, our reactions are slower than a computer. Brain is vastly more complex than a computer, but slower at executing simple responses - In neuron’s chemistry-to-electricity process, ions are exchanged o The fluid outside an axon’s membrane has mostly +ve charged ions o A resting axon’s fluid interior has mostly –ve charged ions o The +ve outside/-ve inside state is called the resting potential - Axon’s surface is selectively permeable - When a neuron fires: o Axon opens its gates and _ve charged sodium ions flood through cell membrance o This depolarizes that axon section, causing another axon channel to open, and then another, etc o During resting pause (the refractory period), the neuron pumps the +ve sodium ions back outside and fires again o In myelinated neurons (i.e. figure 4.2), the action potential speeds up by hopping from the end of one myelin sausage to the next 2 types of signals: 1. Excitatory (like pushing a neuron’s acceleratory) 2. Inhibitory (like pushing its brakes) - If excitatory signals – inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity (threshold), the combined signals trigger an action potential How does our nervous system allow us to experience the difference between a slap and a tap on the back? Stronger stimuli (slap) cause more neurons to fire and to fire more frequently than happen with weaker stimuli (tap) Sir Charles Sherrington - Noticed that neural impulses were taking an unexpectedly long time to travel a neural pathway - Inferred that there must be a brief interruption in the transmission - Called meeting point between neurons a synapse - The axon terminal of a neuron is separated from the receiving neuron by a synaptic gap (or synaptic cleft) - When action potential reaches the knob-like terminals at an axon’s end, it triggers the release of chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters - The neurotransmitter molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron (like how a key fits a lock) - The neurotransmitter unlocks tiny channels at the receiving site, and electrically charged atoms flow in - Then in process called reuptake, the sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters - REFER TO PG50 FIGURE 4.4, FIGURE 4.5 Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap/synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to captor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse Reuptake a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron - A particular brain pathway may use only 1 or 2 neurotransmitters (Figure 4.5) and particular neurotransmitters may affect specific behaviours and emotions - Neurotransmitter systems don’t operate in isolation; they interact, and their effects vary with the receptors they stimulate o Acetylcholine (Ach), one of the best understood neurotransmitters, plays a role in learning and memory o It’s the messenger at every junction between motor neurons (which carry info from brain and spinal cord to the body’s tissues) and skeletal muscles o When Ach is released to muscle cell receptors, the muscle contracts o If Ach transmission is blocked, the muscles cannot contract and we’re paralyzed Some Neurotransmitters and Their Functions Neurotransmitter Function Example of Malfunctions Acetylcholine (Ach) Enables muscle action, learning, With Alzheimer’s disease, Ach- and memory producing neurons deteriorate Dopamine Influences movement, learning, Oversupply linked to attention, and emotion schizophrenia. Undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in parkinson’s disease Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and Undersupply linked to arousal depression. Some antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels Norepinephrine Helps control alertness and Undersupply can depress mood arousal GABA (gamma-aminobutyric A major inhibitory Undersupply linked to seizures, acid) neurotransmitter tremors, and insomnia Glutamate A major excitatory Oversupply can overstimulate neurotransmitter; involved in brain, producing migraines or memory seizures (which is why some people avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food) - The brain produces its own naturally occurring opiates - Our body releases several types of neurotransmitter molecules similar to morphine in response to pain and vigorous exercise o Endorphins help explain good feelings, the painkilling effects of acupuncture, and the indifference to pain in some severely injuged ppl Endorphins “morphine within” – natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure - When flooded with opiate drugs (herion and morphine), the brain may stop producing its own natural opiates - When the drug is withdrawn, the brain may then be deprived of any form of opiate, causing intense discomfort - Drugs and other chemicals affect brain chemistry at synapses o Often by either exciting or inhibiting neurons’ firing - Agonist molecules may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and mimic its effects o Produce a temporary “high” by amplifying normal sensations of arousal or pleasure - Antagonists also bind to receptors but their effect is instead to block a neurotransmitter’s functioning o They’re enough like the natural neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its effect (REFER TO FIGURE 4.6 pg 53), but aren’t similar enough to stimulate the receptor o Botox (contains botulin, a poison) smooth wrinkles by paralyzing the underlying facial muscles Nervous system the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems Central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord - The brain’s neurons cluster into work groups called neural networks - The spinal cord is a two-way info highway connecting between the peripheral nervous system and the brain o Ascending neural fibers send up sensory info o Descending fibers send back motor-control info o It is the neural pathways of spinal cord that govern our reflexes and our automatic responses to stimuli - Reflex a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response o i.e. when your finger touches a flame, neural activity (excited by the heat) travels via sensory neurons to interneurons in spinal cord  they respond by activating motor neurons leading to the muscles in your arm  since the simple pain-reflex pathway runs through the spinal cord and right back out, your hand jerks away from the flame before your brain receives and responds to the info that causes you to feel pain Peripheral nervous system (PNS) the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body - Responsible for gathering info and for transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts Has 2 components: 1. Somatic nervous system the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system. 2. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (i.e. heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms o System serves 2 important, basic functions: (REFER TO FIGURE 4.8 PG 55!!!) i. Sympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations - AROUSING - If something alarms/challenges you (i.e. interview), your sympathetic NS will accelerate your heartbeat, raise blood pressure, slow digestion, raise blood sugar, and cool you with perspiration, making you alert and ready for action ii. Parasympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy - CALMING - In everyday situations, the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS work together to keep you in a steady internal state Nerves bundled axons that form neural “cables” connecting the central nervous system with msucles, glands, and sense organs - i.e. optic nerve bundles a million axons into a single cable carrying the msgs each eye send to the brain info travels in the nervous system through 3 types of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons neurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord 2. Motor neurons neurons that carry outgoing info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands 3. Interneurons neurons within the brain and spinal word that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs Endocrine system the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream - Interconnected with nervous system - Secretes another form of chemical messengers: o Hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues  Hormones influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression  Some hormones are identical to neurotransmitters - The endocrine and nervous system are close relatives o Both produce molecules that act on receptors elsewhere o They also differ:  The speedy nervous system zips msgs from eyes to brainto hand in a fraction of a sex  Endocrine msgs trudge along in the bloodstream, taking several secs or more to travel from gland to target tissue  i.e. nervous = text msg / endocrine = letter - endocrine msgs tend to outlast the effects of neural msgs o that helps explain why upset feelings may linger beyond our awareness of what upsets us - Adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress o These hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar, providing us with a surge of energy - Pituitary gland the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands Pituitary releases certain hormones 1. Growth hormone that stimulates physical development 2. Oxytocin, enables contractions associated with birthing, milk flow during mursing, and orgasm a. Also promotes pair bonding, group cohesion, and social trust o Is sort of like a master gland - feedback system (brain  pituitary  other glands  hormones  body and brain) Why is the pituitary gland called a “master gland”? Responding to signals from the hypothalamus, the pituitary releases hormones that trigger other endocrine glands to secrete hormones that in turn influence brain and behaviour Module 5 Lesion tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. Electroencephalogram (EEG) an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. PET (positron emission tomography) scan a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy. - A special application of MRI, fMRI, can reveal the brain’s functioning as well as its structure - fMRI (fuctional MRI) a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function o i.e. as the person looks at a scene, the fMRI detects blood rushing to the back of the brain, which processes visual information Brainstem the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing Pons helps coordinate movements - if a cat’s brainstem is severed from the rest of the brain above it, the animal will still breathe and live (run, climb, groom) - REFER TO FIGURE 5.5 o The body’s wiring Nerves from the left side of the brain are mostly linked to the right side of the body, and vice versa Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla - Egg shaped - Receives info from all senses except smell and routes it to the higher brain regions that deal with seeing, hearing, tasting, and touching - Also receives some of the higher brain’s replies, which it then directs to the medulla and cerebellum Reticular formation a nerve network that travels through the brainstem and plays an important role in controlling arousal - Finger-shaped network of neurons that extend from spinal cord right up through the thalamus - As the spinal cord’s sensory input flows up to the thalamus, some of it travels through the reticular formation, which filters incoming stimuli and relays important information to other brain areas Cerebellum the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance - Baseball sized - Enables nonverbal learning and memory o Also helps judge time, modulate our emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures - Coordinates voluntary movement - If cerebellum is injured, you would have difficulty walking, keeping balance, or shaking hands NOTE: - These older brain functions all occur without conscious effort - Our brain processes most information outside of our awareness - We are aware of the results of our brain’s labour, but not of how we construct the visual image Limbic system neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives - Between the oldest and newest brain areas lies the limbic system (limbic means border) - The hippocampus processes conscious memories o Animals or humans who lose theirs to surgery or injury also lose their ability to form new memories of facts and events Amygdala two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion - Linked to aggression and fear o i.e. a rhesus monkey’s amygdala was removed, turning the normally ill-tempered animal into the most mellow of creatures Hypothalamus a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temp), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward - below the thalamus - an important link in the command chain governing bodily maintenance - also contains a reward/pleasure center - (read pg 66)/ (REFER TO PG 67 FIGURE 5.11) Module 6 The Cerebral Cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center Glial cells (glia) cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning and thinking Frontal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments Parietal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position Occipital lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head includes areas that receive information from the visual fields Temporal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear - Older brain networks sustain basic life functions and enable memory, emotions, and basic drives - Newer neural networks within the cerebrum (the hemispheres contribute to 85% of brain’s weight) form specialized work teams that enable our perceiving, thinking, and speaking - - The left and right hemispheres are filled mainly with axons connecting to cortex to the brain’s other regions - The cerebral cortex contains 20-23 billion nerve cells and 300 trillion synaptic connections - Supporting tehse billions of nerve cells are 9x as many spidery glial cells - Neurons are queen bees; glial cells are work bees  they provide nutrients and insulating myelin, guide neural connections, and mop up ions and neurotransmitter - The more complex an animal brain is, the proportion of glia to neurons increases - Analysis of Einstein’s brain found that there’s a much greater concentration of glial cells than the avg person - Each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes, separated by prominent fissures/folds Which part of the human brain distinguishes us most from less complex animals? The cerebral cortex Motor cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements - Has no sensory receptors - Electrical probing areas to see which body part moves - Body areas requiring precise control, such as the fingers and mouth, occupy the greatest amount of cortical space - (REFER TO FIGURE 6.2 PG 71) - Can use brain-computer interfaces o Person thinks, computer does (good for ppl who are paralyzed) Sensory cortex area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations - Specialized in receiving information from the skin senses and movement of body parts - The more sensitive the body region, the larger the sensory cortex area devoted to it is - Supersensitive lip project to a larger brain area than do your toes - Atm, you are receiving visual information in the visual cortex in your occipital lobes (back of brain) - Any sound heard is processed by auditory cortex in your temporal lobes (above ears) Association areas areas of the cerebral cortex that aren’t involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking - Electrically probing an association area won’t trigger any observable responses - Association area functions cannot be neatly mapped - Are found in all 4 lobes - In the frontal lobes, they enable judgment, planning, and processing of new memories o Ppl with damaged frontal lobes may have intact memories, high scores on intelligence tests, and great cake-baking skills. Yet they would not be able to plan ahead to begin baking a cake o Frontal lobe damage can also alter personality and remove a person’s inhibitions o Moral judgments seem unrestrained by normal emotions  Would you advocate pushing someone in front of a runaway boxcar to save five others? Most ppl don’t, but those with damage to a brain area behind the eyes often do - In parietal lobes, they enable mathematical and spatial reasoning - In patients undergoing brain surgery, stimulation of one parietal lobe area produced a feeling of wanting to move an upper limb, lips, or tongue (but without any actual movement) o With increased stimulation, patients falsely believed they actually had moved o When surgeons stimulated a different association area near the motor cortex in the frontal lobes, the patients did move but had no awareness of doing so - Another association area, on the underside of the right temporal lobe, enables us to recognize faces o if a stroke or head injury destroyed this area of your brain, you would still be able to describe facial features and to recognize someone’s gender and approx. age, yet be strangely unable to identify the person Why are association areas important? Association areas are involved in higher mental functions – interpreting, integrating, and acting on information processed in sensory areas The Brain’s Plasticity To what extend can a damaged brain reorganize itself, and what is neurogenesis? Plasticity the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience - brains are sculpted not only by genes, but also by our experiences o well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area - Some of the effects of brain damage can be traced to 2 hard facts: 1. Severed neurons, unlike cut skin, usually don’t regenerate 2. Some brain functions seem preassigned to specific areas - One newborn who suffered damage to temporal lobe facial recognition areas later remained unable to recognize faces o But some neural tissue CAN reorganize in response to damage - Constraint-induced therapy aims to rewire brains and improve the dexterity of a brain-damaged child or even an adult stroke victim o By restraining a fully functioning limb, therapists force patients to use the “bad” hand or leg, gradually reprogramming the brain - Brain’s plasticity is useful for the blind or deaf o Blindness or deafness makes unused brain areas available for other uses Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons Corpus callosum the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them Split brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s 2 hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them - Although the brain often attempts self-repair by reorganizing existing tissue, it sometimes attempts to mend itself by producing new brain cells, called neurogenesis Why do split brains reveal about the functions of our 2 brain hemispheres? - 2 neurosurgeons speculated that major epileptic seizures were caused by an amplification of abnormal brain activity bouncing back and forth between the 2 cerebral hemispheres o If so, could they put an end to this by severing the corpus callosum  This wide band of axon fibers connects the two hemispheres and carries messages between them - After operation, the patients with split brains were surprisingly normal, their personality and intellect hardly affected - Visual wiring: o Info from left half of your field of vision goes to your right hemisphere, and info from the right into left hemisphere, which usually controls speech (Note: however that each eye receives sensory info from both right and left visual fields)  Data received by either hemisphere are quickly transmitted to the other across the corpus callosum  In a person with severed corpus callosum, this info sharing doesn’t take place o In an intact brain, info sent to right or left would be shared o However, because the split-brain surgery had cut the communication lines between the hemispheres, the researchers could, with these patients, quiz each hemisphere separately o In an experiment, Gazziniga asked these people to stare at a dot as he flashed HE-ART on a screen o Thus, HE appeared in their left visual field (which transmits to the right hemisphere) o And ART in the right field (which transmits to the left hemisphere) o When he asked them to say what they saw, the patients reported ART o But when asked to point to the word they saw, the left hand (controlled by the right hemisphere) pointed to HE o Given an opportunity to express itself, each hemisphere reported what it had seen o The right hemisphere (controlling the left hand) intuitively knew what it couldn’t verbally report 1. If we flash a red light to the right hemisphere of a person with a split brain, and flash a green light to the left hemisphere, will each observe its own colour? Yes 2. Will the person be aware that the colours differ? No 3. What will the person verbally report seeing? Green Right-Left differences in the intact brain (normal ppl) - Just as hearing ppl usually use the left hemisphere to process speech, deaf ppl use the left hemisphere to process sign language - Although the left hemisphere is adept at making quick, literal interpretations of language, the right hemisphere o Excels in making inferences. Primed with the flashed word foot, the left hemisphere will be especially quick to recognize the closely associated word heel. But if primed with foot, cry, and glass, the right hemisphere will more quickly recognize another word distantly related to all three (cut). And if given an insight-like problem – “What word goes with boot, summer, ground?” – the right hemisphere more quickly than the left recognizes the solution: camp. o Helps us modulate our speech to make meaning clear – as when we ask “What’s that in the road ahead?” instead of “What’s that in the road, a head?” o Helps orchestrate our sense of self. People who suffer partial paralysis will sometimes obstinately deny their impairment – strangely claiming they can move a paralyzed limb – if the damage is to the right hemisphere Module 11 What are genes and how do behaviour geneticists explain our individual differences? - Chromosomes (chapters) are composed of coiled chain called DNA (pages). Genes, small segments of the DNA, form the words of those chapters - Genes can be either active (expressed) or inactive - Environmental events “turn on” genes - When turned on, genes provide the code for creating protein molecules - Humans share 96% similarity to chimpanzee DNA Behaviour genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behaviour Environment every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes DNA a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes Genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein Genome the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic matieral in that organism’s chromosomes Identical twins twins who develop from a single (monozygotic) fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms - Although identical twins have the same genes, they don’t always have the same number of copies of those genes. That helps explain why 1 twin may be more at risk for certain illnesses - Most identical twins share a placenta during prenatal development, but one of every 3 sets has 2 separate placentas. One twin’s placenta may provide slightly better nourishment, which may contribute to identical twin differences Fraternal twins twins who develop from separate (dizygotic) fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than siblings, but they share a fetal environment - A person whose identical twin has Alzheimer’s disease, for example, has a 60% risk of getting it too; if the affected twin is fraternal, the risk is 30% - Studies have shown that identical twins whose parents treated them alike were not psychologically more alike than identical twins who were treated less similarly - Separated twins study (REFER TO PG 135-139) - Biological vs adoptive relatives o Studies show that people who grow up together, whether biologically related or not, don’t much resemble one another in personality o In traits such as extraversion and agreeableness, adoptees are more similar to their biological parents than to their caregiving adoptive parents - The environment shared by a family’s children has virtually no discernible impact on their personalities - But parents do influence their children’s attitudes, values, manners, faith, and politics Temperament a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Molecular genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied. Interaction the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity) Epigenetics the study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change Evolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of behaviour and the mind, using principles of natural selection Natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations - Behavior geneticists explore the genetic and environmental roots of human differences - Evolutionary psychologists instead focus mostly on what makes us so much alike as humans - Charles Darwin’s Principle: o Organisms’ varied offspring compete for survival o Certain biological and behavioural variations increase organisms’ reproductive and survival chances in their particular environment o Offspring that survive are more likely to pass their genes to ensuing generations o Thus, over time, population characteristics may change Mutation a random error in gene replication that leads to a change - No more than 5% of the genetic differences among humans arise from population group differences - Some 95% of genetic variation exists within populations o The typical genetic difference between 2 icelandic villagers or between 2 kenyans is much greater than the avg difference between the 2 groups - (Refer to pg 140-143) Gender in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female - Males are more likely than females to initiate sexual activity o The largest gender difference in sexuality - In survey of US college students, 58% of men but only 34% of women agreed that “if two ppl really like each other, it’s all right for them to have sex even if they’ve known each other for a very short time” - Another study showed university men preferred casual hook-ups, while women preferred planned dating - Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent among males with traditional masculine attitudes - Gay men (like straight men) report more interest in uncommitted sex, more responsiveness to visual sexual stimuli, and more concern with their partner’s physical attractiveness than do lesbian women - Men are drawn to healthy, fertile-appearing women, and whose waists are roughly a third narrower than their hips (a sign of future fertility) o Teen men prefer women older than themselves, mid-twenties prefer women around same age, and older men prefer younger women - Women are attracted to men who seem mature, dominant, bold, and affluent, with a potential for long-term mating and investment in their joint offspring - There’s a principle at work here, say evolutionary psychologists: o Nature selects behaviours that increase the likelihood of sending one’s genes into the future How do evolutionary psychologists explain gender differences in sexuality? Evolutionary psychologists theorize that women have inherited their ancestors’ tendencies to be more cautious, sexually, because of the challenges associated with incubating and nurturing offspring. Men have inherited an inclination to be more casual about sex, because their act of fathering requires a smaller investment What are the 3 main criticisms of the evolutionary explanation of human sexuality? 1. It starts with an effect and works backward to propose an explanation 2. Unethical and immoral men could use such explanations to rationalize their behaviour to women 3. This explanation may overlook the effects of cultural expectations and socialization SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Lecture Outline Two Inseparable Processes - Sensation is the process in which we take in the information around us o Learning is not required as long as you have the full physiological capabilities - Perception is the interpretation of what we’re doing o Mental interpretation of the environment o More of a psychological process o Compared to sensation, it’s open to different interpretation (see things their way as they want to see them) Two Inseparable Processes: SENSATION PERCEPTION Physical sensing of environment Mental interpretation of environment Physiological processes Psychological processes Relatively objective Relatively subjective Learning & experience not required Dependent on learning & experience e.g. chalk on a board e.g. words on board VISON Stimulus Energy Sensory Receptors Sensory transduction Vision Light waves Photo-sensitive rods and cones Photoreceptors Optic nerve in retina of eye ThalamusVisual cortex of occipital lobes Audition Sound waves Pressure sensitive hair cells in Tympanic membrane  ossicles cochlea of inner ear  cochlea  basilar membrane  auditory nerve …. Olfaction Shape of molecules in inhaled air Mucous membrane of nose Mucous membrane  olfactory nerve  limbic system Gustation Shape of molecules dissolved in Tongue Taste cells in taste buds  facial saliva nerve  thalamus  taste receptors throughout brain Tactile Touch temperature pain Sensory neurons in skin Skin receptors  trigeminal nerve (above neck) or spinal nerve (everywhere else)  thalamus  somatosensory cortex of parietal lobes Kinesthetic Pressure strain Joints Sensory neurons . Spinal Muscles nerves  cerebellum tendons Vestibular Motion Inner ear Semicircular canals  cerebellum - Smell was the first sense to evolve o All living organisms have the ability to chemically process the environment (smell) - All mammals and reptiles have limbic system similar to ours - Smell has unique properties. Humans has weakest sense of smell Example: The Eye As Optic Instrument Categories of Psychic Phenomenon Telepathy - The direct communication between one mind and another through the use of psi Clairvoyance - The direct mental perception of a state of physical affairs Precognition - The accurate prediction of future events Psychogenesis - the direct influence of mind on matter - a paranormal motor function rather than an extra-sensory perception Transduction: From "E" to "P" Extra-Sensory Perception The Nature of ESP The Case Against ESP The Disturbing Pattern Why We Believe Biased Reporting The Will to Believe The Data of Everyday Experience ESP: "The experience of, or response to, a target object, state, event or influence without sensory contact." Frank Gilovich DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Lecture Outline Background: The Industrial Revolution - Increase in child labour during I.R. o i.e. children were part of the forefront in the mining industry to plant dynamites - sapling perspective changed into a caterpillar perspective thanks to Freud(?) and Jean o children are unique and special, differ from adults and you have to treat them that way - Freud o At the age of birth, they are driven by their sexual instincts o Oral satisfactions (i.e. breastfeeding) o BEHAVIOURISM didn’t agree  Doesn’t believe in this “love”  A child’s reaction is due to stimulation; physiological needs Affective Development: Attachment Theory 1950's: Two Theories of Attachment Harry Harlow - Behaviourist - Used animal research for stimulus responses - The experiment when taking a newly born infant monkey away from its mother and placing it in a cage with essential physiological needs (milk) o Infant monkey became attached to the cloth diaper that was used as bedding for the cage and refused to part with it every time research assistants tried to put in a clean one  The infant needed love and replaced their real mother with a surrogate mother  the cloth diaper, the closest thing to love in the cage Basic Research Design and Results - Harlow takes these monkeys and does an experiment where they are raised with 2 surrogate mothers side by side 1. The wire mother 2. The cloth mother (cloth covered the wire) - Both mothers had heads and body - Milk bottle was placed with wired mother - Cloth mother had nothing but the cloth (warmth) - Hypothesis: the baby monkey will be attached to the wire mother - According to the 2 theories (freud and ___), when a snake is placed in the cage, the infant monkey will run to the wire monkey o Wrong, monkey ran to cloth mother - REFER TO DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY CHART “Results of Harlow’s Research:” Evolutionary Function of Attachment - Need mechanism that promoted feeling and care-giving  primary, instinctively in love with their primary caregiver - Mother also needs to have a feeling of love to respond to the needs the infant has - All mammals have a separation cry when child is separated from their parents Mary Ainsworth - “The Strange Situation” experiment The Strange Situation - 1 chair for mother, 1 chair for a stranger and toes between them - Child’s attention goes towards the toys and wants to go over to the toys o Some children will bring toys back to mother, others will stay in the area with the toys o The child will turn around to always check that the mother is in their view - Once stranger is introduced into the setting, the child will instantly run back to mother - But if the mother doesn’t react to the stranger in negative way, the child will go back towards the toys, knowing that the stranger is safe - Mother then leaves and the infant is with the stranger o Infant will start crying and go towards the chair where the mother was sitting (touch the chair) - Most infant will start to settle down into whimper after a min and go over to the toys (but with less enjoy and more reserve) o It’s as if the infant knows that although the mother left, he/she trusts her that she will come back, “I trust her” feeling - a trust builds between infant and caregiver - (look up zoo takers and how infants are born. Some animals that grew up in captivity don’t know how to take care of an infant) - During the reunion, the infant will often show both love and hate o Love that mother came back o Hate that she left o Infant will hug and hit Event Persons Present Duration (of how long scenario plays out) Strange environment Mother and baby 3min Stranger anxiety Mother, baby, and stranger 3min Separation and stranger anxiety Stranger and baby 3min (or less) reunion Mother and baby 3min (or more) Separation anxiety Baby alone 3min (or less) Stranger anxiety Stranger and baby 3 min (or less) Reunion Mother and baby 3min Social Functions of Attachment - We use the term caregiver b/c it doesn’t have to be the mother o It is the person who’s there for the infant (i.e. father, surrogate parents) - (Attachment patterns) Infant – Caregiver Bonding o SECURE ATTACHMENT PATTERN (67% in north america) o INSECURE ATTACHMENT PATTERNS (33% in north america)  Ambivalent/resistant (15%)  Good self-esteem as they grow up  Avoidant (10%)  In some cases the baby will have its back to its mother  If mother asks “What do you have there in your hand?, infant will ignore  In this case, the infant will come back to mother and show small amount of whimpering (appears as if they’re strong, independent) but won’t display as much as other children. They’ll then go back to toys  As they grow up, they always question themselves, low self-esteem  Submissive type  Disorganized (not a real pattern; it’s misc.; 8%) Attachment styles and peer interactions (child vs child) Secure child Ambivalent child Avoidant child Secure child Smooth & reciprocal Smooth Aggressive with both contributing Secure very sociable; tolerant; caring Secure intolerant Ambivalent child Hot & cold Dominant – submissive “bullying – whipping boy” Avoidant hostile and punitive Ambivalent dependent and inept Avoidant child Power struggle
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