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Psychology Exam Review.docx

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Richard Ennis

Introduction 4/17/2013 12:57:00 PM The ABC’s of psychology  Affect o Feelings, emotions, mood  Behaviour o Actions, responses, performance  Cognition o Thoughts, decisions, attitudes The Basic Model  Environment  Person  Behaviour  Outcomes Perspectives  Psychodynamic o Focuses on the person o Subconscious forces  Behaviourism o Focuses on behavior o Overt responses  Sociocultural o Focuses on environment o Groups, society, culture  Cognitive o Focuses on the person o Thought and perception  Biological o Focuses on the person o Brain, evolution, genetics Goals of Science  Understand  Explain  Predict  Control Formation of a Theory  Form a hypothesis  Observe  Analyze  Refine Theory  Develop Theory Criteria of Science  Empirical  Replicable  Falsifiable Correlation  Numerous links  Eg. Low self-esteem and Depression o Low self-esteem could lead to depression o Depression could lead to low self-esteem o Distressing events and biology could cause both Developmental Psychology 4/17/2013 12:57:00 PM Two theories of attachment  Psychodynamic o Primary biological need is sex o Secondary emotional need is attachment  Behaviourist o Primary biological need is survival o Secondary emotional need is attachment Harlow  Harlow argued that there is no love or attachment because it is not a basic survival need, but what about a child’s survival due to attachment to their mother?  Experiment o Monkeys given two surrogate mothers, one made of wire, the other covered in fur. One mother feeds them, infant should grow attached to the mother that provides it with food. The monkeys always grew attached to the furry mother because they spent most time with that mother, and only went to the other mother for help  Emotional attachment is a primary motivational need that serves evolutionary purposes o Pit of despair – when raised in isolation, they die The Strange Situation  Mary Ainsworth  Mother and a child volunteer sit in a room. Toys are far from the mother. Stranger enters and talks to mother, introducing anxiety, mom leaves. Stranger and separation anxiety are introduced. Child panics, mother reenters, child returns to normal. Attachment Patterns  Secure: trust that they will be okay  Insecure/ Anxious: o Ambivalent: lack trust, happy to see mother return, angry she left o Avoidant: confident in themselves, do not show interest in mother leaving or returning Interacting Sources of Attachment  Explains different attachment patterns in the same family  CHILD   CAREGIVER    Meets primary needs of child  Elicits contact with temperament and innate behaviours of   cuddling, looking, smiling, crying, etc.    Increased contact, responsiveness, parental satisfaction  Increasing attachment and trust in caregiver      Increasing attachment and trust in child  Uses “secure base” to explore and develop autonomy      Encourages exploration; monitors child’s behaviour; sets limits  Develops autonomy, self-esteem; attachment pattern  Patterns & Peers Secure Ambivalent Avoidant Smooth Smooth Aggressive Secure & Secure tolerant, Secure intolerant Reciprocal caring Dominant- Ambivalent Hot & Cold Submissive Power struggle Avoidant Mistrust  Culture plays a role in attachment patterns Process of Social Learning 1. Attention o Characteristic of observer, of model or of event 2. Retention o Cognitive maturity 3. Motoric Reproduction o Physical maturity o Prerequisite skills 4. Motivation o Outcome expectations o Efficacy Expectations o Incentive Value  A child must have a positive outcome in mind before trying to imitate or learn the behaviour, this produces motivation  This teaches children which behaviours they should produce and which they should oppress Piaget’s Theory  Schema o Building blocks of knowledge o Assimilating  New info into existing schema o Accommodating  Expanding schema and creating new schema  Equilibration and disequilibration Stages of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor (-2) o Experience and understand immediate world through senses and actions  Preoperational (3-6) o Represent things with words and symbols, lack logical reasoning and ability to pretend  Concrete Operational (7-11) o Think logically about concrete events; mental operations with symbols; perform arithmetical operations  Formal Operational (12-adult) o Think and reason abstractly; solve theoretical problems and answer hypothetical questions; moral reasoning Neuropsychology 4/17/2013 12:57:00 PM Two Requirements for interacting with the environment  Afferent o Incoming perception o Environment to person o Sense and perceive  Efferent o Outward response o Person to environment o Response Motor Neuron  Dendrites work in afferent process  Senses come in through the dendrites, travel through the axon Types of Neurons  Sensory o Carry messages in from sensory receptors to CNS for processing o Afferent Direction o 2-3 Million  Motor o Carry instructions out from the CNS to the body’s muscles and glands o Efferent Direction o 2-3 Million  Interneurons o Process information between the sensory input and the motor output o Within the CNS o 10-100 billion o Connect with each other to form networks, learning Galvani’s Experiment  made the dead frog dance with electricity Loewi’s Experiment  Two hearts in distilled water  Sent an electric current into heart one causing contraction  Water from beaker one was transferred into beaker two causing heart 2 to beat  Discovery of neurotransmitter acetylcholine Hodgkin – Huxley Model The Synapse  junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron  synaptic junction or synaptic gap Neurotransmitters  Chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap  Neurotransmitter receptor sites precisely fit to open the site  Agonist o Molecule fills the receptor site and activates it  Antagonist o Molecule fills the lock so the neurotransmitter cant get in After Synaptic Transmission  Three Possibilities: o Decomposed by specific enzyme o Reuptake o Continues binding Reuptake  After the neurotransmitter stimulate the receptors on the receiving neuron, the chemicals are taken back up into the sending neuron to be used again Examples of Neurotransmitters  Acetylcholine  Dopamine  Serotonin  Epinephrine and Norepinephrine  Endorphin Addictive Neurotransmitters  Cocaine and amphetamines  Opiates  Alcohol Neurology of Addiction  Brain maintains homeostasis  Need increased dosage to experience same effect  Brain “learns” to anticipate consumption Sensation and Perception 4/17/2013 12:57:00 PM Two Inseparable Processes  Sensation o Physical sensing of environment o Physiological o Relatively objective o Learning and experience NOT required  Perception o Mental interpretation of environment o Psychological o Relatively subjective o Learning and experience ARE required From Sensory Organs to the Brain  Reception o Stimulation of sensory receptor cells by energy  Transduction o Transforming this cell stimulation into neural impulses  Transmission o Delivering this neural information to the brain to be processed Thalamus  Sensory area of the brain Hippocampus  Linked to memory Amygdala  Linked to emotion ESP  Experience of, or response to, a target object, state, event or influence without sensory contact  Types of ESP: o Precognition  Accurate prediction of future events o Clairvoyance  The direct mental perception of a state of physical affairs o Telepathy  The direct communication between one mind and another through use of psi o Little evidence States of Consciousness: Dreams 4/17/2013 12:57:00 PM Sleep Onset  Physiological o Heart rate slows o Breathing irregular o Muscles relax o Sensory equipment closes down  Neurological o Electrical voltage increases with more diffuse firings throughout the brain  Psychological o Awareness of environment and time slips away o Control of thought and imagery decreases o Hypnagogic hallucinations REM Sleep  Rapid Eye Movement  Heart rate rises, breathing becomes rapid  Sleep paralysis o Brainstem blocks motor cortex messages and muscles don’t move. Also known as paradoxical sleep  Genitals are aroused, but not because of dream content  90 minute cycles through 8 hours of sleep  with age there are more awakenings and less deep sleep  The length of REM sleep increases the longer you remain asleep Physiology of Dreams  REM in infants and all mammals  RAS becomes active prior to and during REM o Excite the motor neurons of eyes  Serotonin and Norepinephrine levels drop and Acetylcholine increases o ACh stimulates diffuse areas of brain in unpredictable manner Content of Dreams  Experienced as real o ABC’s and all senses  Coherent but bizarre storyline  Usually mundane, everyday content o 50% of content is easily linked to recent experience  Social, cultural, gender, geographical influences  Can be influenced by external stimuli  Most people dream in colour  Requires immediate recall upon awakening or it is forgotten  Everyone dreams Theories About The Function of Dreams  Wish fulfillment o Psychoanalytic theory  Information processing o Sort out days events, file away memories  Physiological function o Develop and preserve neural pathways  Activation synthesis o Impulses evoke random memories that are weaved into stories  Cognitive development o Reflects cognitive development Further Info  If deprived of REM sleep, we catch up  24 hours without, cannot be repaired or replenished  Experiment: every time a person falls asleep, wake them up just before REM sleep, when they go back to sleep they go directly into REM, proves it is important Memory 4/17/2013 12:57:00 PM Basic Memory Process  Encoding o Get info in and understand it  Storage o Find a capacity to store it  Retrieval o Recall the stored info SENSORY MEMORY External events provide information for sensory organs Background “noise” Foreground “Information” Internal Trigger External Trigger Habituated or Motivated and Selective attention to desensitized stimuli aroused to perceive changes in forgotten within certain information environment seconds Arousal → stimuli Stimuli → arousal Not registered nor Registered and Transferred to STM transferred to STM  Echoic – retain sound for a few seconds after it is gone  Iconic – retain image for a few seconds after it is gone Stage Model of Memory  Sensory Memory o Temporary storage of sensory information o Capacity: high o Duration: less than 1 second (vision) or few seconds (sound)  Short Term Memory o Brief storage of information currently being used o Capacity: limited o Duration: less than 20 seconds  Long Term Memory o Relatively permanent storage of information o Capacity: unlimited o Duration: long or permanent  Attention: information that passes through “trigger” is transferred to STM (Sensory to Short Term)  Elaborative Rehearsal: Information subjected to deeper processing is transferred to LTM (Short Term to Long Term) Forgetting  Can occur at any memory stage  As we process info, we filter, alter and lose much of it Motivation to Study  Arousal  Create disequilibration  Terms and Concepts: o Automatic processing: material has come to my head o Effortful processing: takes an effort to process o Rehearsal o Spacing Effect: space out studying over long period of time o Serial position effect o Mnemonics o Chunking o Massed Practice: cramming all info in at once, not good  Make material meaningful o Use assimilation, not just accommodation  Maximize Sensory Stimulation  Effective Highlighting  Consolidate the Material o Study contrasting material o Distribute study sessions o Sleep on it and take breaks Intelligence 4/17/2013 12:57:00 PM Definition  What intelligence tests measure Intelligence tests  Series of questions and other exercises which attempt to assess people’s mental abilities in a way that generates a numerical score, so that one person can be compared to another IQ  Intelligence quotation Galton  Intelligence is biological
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