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PSYCH 101 Textbook Summary [Midterms #3 & #4] File contains concise, easy-to-read summaries of assigned textbook readings. Readings arranged chronologically by when they were assigned for ease of use; organized by chapter for increased readability.

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Steve Spencer

Chapter 16Visual Capture The tendency for vision to dominate our other senses o EX If we hear a sound from a projector behind us we perceive the sound to be coming from the screen where the actors are talking To transform sensory information into meaningful perceptions we must organize it We must perceive objects as distinct from their surroundings see them as having a meaningful and constant form and discern their distance and motion A group of German psychologists discovered that when given a cluster of sensations we tend to organize them into a gestaltan organized whole FigureGround The organization of the visual field into objects the figures that stand out from their surroundings the ground Grouping The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups o Proximity We group nearby figures together o Similarity We group together figures that are similar to each other o Continuity We perceive smooth continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones o Connectedness o Closure We fill in gaps to create a complete whole object Depth Perception The ability to objects in three dimensions although the images that strike our retina are twodimensional allows us to judge distance Binocular cues Depth cues such as retinal disparityA binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the two eyeballs The brain computes distancethe greater the disparity between the two images The closer the object and convergenceA binocular cue for perceiving depth the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object The greater the inward strain the closer the object which depend on the use of two eyes Monocular cues Depth cues such as interpositionIf one object partially blocks our view of another we perceive it as closer and linear perspectiveParallel lines appear to converge with distance available to either eye alone o Relative Size If we assume that two objects are similar in size we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away o Relative Clarity We perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp clear objects o Texture Gradient A gradual change from a coarse distinct texture to a fine indistinct texture signals increasing distance o Relative Height We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away o LightShadow Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes Given two identical objects the dimmer one seems farther away Stroboscopic Movement Perceiving continuous movement in a series of slightly varying images o EX Animation Phi Phenomenon An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession Perceptual Consistency Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change Size Constancy We perceive objects as having a constant size even while our distance from them varies o EX We can tell that a car is big enough carry people even if it looks small from far away Lightness Constancy We perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies Chapter 17If somebody is blind at birth but then regains their sight later in life they will have a hard time recognizing objects by sight that they recognized by touch These experiments indicate that there is a critical period shortly after birthan optimal time when certain events must take placefor normal sensory and perceptual development Perceptual Adaption In vision the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field Perceptual Set A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another Human Factor Psychologists A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use Technology developers often suffer the curse of knowledge which leads them to assume that others share their expertise Chapter 29Cognition The mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating
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