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Midterm #1 Review These notes cover the first four weeks of the course, which include: history & scope research methods neural systems the brain motivation & hunger big brain sensation & perception vision visual perception classical conditionin

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University of Waterloo
Colin Mac Leod

Psych 101 Colin Macleod Tuesday September 14 2010What is Psychology The science of behaviour and mental processes Why Psychology Matters o Problems exist that are truly psychological and that rest on psychological diagnoses and respond to psychological treatmentso As a science psychology provides for understanding diagnosing and changing behaviour whether problem behaviour autism or normal behaviour shynessWhy Psychology Matters o Birth o Growing o Ordering o Repetitive Behaviours such as stacking lining up which are effects of children with AutismThey also have routines What is Autism Autism and autistic spectrum disorders ASD are lifelong neurodevelopmental disorders affecting sociability and communication for which no aetiology based treatment has yet been developed Autism o More prevalent in males 80 o There are no quick fixes to autismo Parents may go into a depression o Contrary to popular belief there is no evidence to proof that autism is on the rise Characterizing Autism o Brain development disorder o Impairs social interaction and communication o Causes restricted and repetitive behaviour o Prevalence of one to two cases per 1000 people about 6 per 1000 for ASD 1 in ever 150250 peopleo It is not visible unlike Down syndromes The DisabilitiesA developmental and behavioural pattern The Triad of Impairments o Problems with social interaction o Problems with social communication o Imaginative Autism Spectrum Disorder I Autistic Disorder II Aspergers Disorder III Childhood Disintegrative Disorder IV Retts Disorder V Pervasive Developmental DisorderCharacterizing Aspergers o Normal intelligence and language development but lack of social awareness and deficiencies in communication skillso Often perform well on school tests but are awkward or inappropriate socially o Dont know how to interpret social signs sent by others o Often seen as eccentric or odd and hence at risk of being bullied or teased relentlessly by peersSome Possible Signs of ASD o Does not babble point or make meaningful gestures by 1 year of age o Does not speak one word by 16 months o Does not combine two words by 2 yearso Does not respond to nameo Appears to be unaware when people address himher but responds to other sounds o Avoids eye contact o Does not smileMore Possible Signs of ASD o Wants to be aloneo Does not seem to know how to play with toys o Excessively lines up toys or other objects o Does not point at objects to show interest o Does not look at objects when another person points at themo Has unusual reactions to the way things smell taste look feel or sound Genetic Transmission o Children with a family history of autism have a somewhat higher risk for developing ASD than children with no family history Significant PeopleLeo Kanner 18961981 o First description of early infantile autism in 1943o Defined most of the crucial symptoms that are witnessed todayHans Asperger 19061980 o First description of characteristics in 1944 o First called Aspergers Syndrome in 1981 o First recognized as a legitimate diagnosis in 1994 DSM IV O Ivaar Lovaas o First reported major advances using Applied Behaviour Analysis ABA in 1987 studies ongoing since the 60s o Now the major treatment technique for autism ABA also known as Intensive Behavioural Intervention IBI
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