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Entire Course Module Summary This is the complete summary of 11 modules for PSYCH 101. I took this course in the summer VIA distance education. In the notes, I indicate which sections were covered test 1, test 2, test 3 and test 4 as well as the break

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University of Waterloo
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Module Summaries ******** Unit 1 ******** Module 1: Introduction, History, Research Methods Behavioural Neuroscience: facial feature readings, relating neural systems with behaviour Developmental: studies physical, cognitive and social life from birth to death Cognitive: how to process info, encode info, store info, memory, language, problem solving Clinical: studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders, experiments Social: how we think about, influence and relate to one another, different settings, cultures Psychology: what people think; how we feel about things; emotion/behaviour Psychiatric Tradition Everything is done subconsciously; cant rely on what people say or do to identify their problem. Emphasis is on all detail about person; takes several years. Clinical approach; Learn about people who are sick. Freud: two primary motives: sex & aggression - Unconscious behaviour - Inner mental life that is complex/devious - Started psychiatric tradition - Oedipus Complex: boys want to have sex with mom but realize they cant so they live through father; doesnt explain women development Carl Jung: unconscious is powerful influence - Collective unconscious: shared; inherited reservoir of memory traces from out species history - Interpretation of World Adler & Horney: wanted power; concern for self-esteem - Agreed with Freud that childhood is important - Social NOT sexual Carl Rogers: people are basically good, just let them get to know themselves - Reflected back on how people felt - Growth required: genuiness, acceptance and empathy Module Summaries Testing Tradition Psych is product of biology; nature VS nurture & evolution Only small # of traits can explain difference in humans Peoples traits can be understood through simple tests and questionnaires Francis Galton: wanted to know how to make someone a genious/superior - Smartest = Strongest - Naive study about how people are most likely to survive Cattel & Eysenek: trait tradition - Two major components to personality: Introversion: shy Extroversion: not shy Binet: first intelligent test - Based on topics in school & age level Academic Tradition Psych is best understood when causes are understood; what causes behaviour? Why? Not how or when Peoples thoughts and actions can be understood by observations Systematic study produces fullest understanding through labs and experiments William Wundt: Reaction tests - Thought thoughts could be divided into mental atoms - Developed first psych labs/developed scientific approach William James: brought psych to North America - Wrote first psychology textbook - Functionalism: school of psych that focused on how mental and behavioural processes functioned how they enable organism to adapt/survive/flourish Watson & Skinner: developed behaviourism - psych is study of behaviour - Thoughts shouldnt be studied Module Summaries Albert Bandura: observational learning Trait Tradition O penness = Intelligence - More flexible C onscientiousness - People who stick to their goals/work hard to get things done E xtroversion - Shy? A greeableness - How pos/neg you are N euroticism - Tendency to experience negative emotional states Humanistic Perspective Studied how healthy people strive for self-determination and self-realization Abraham Maslow: motivated by hierarchy of needs - Process of fulfilling potential: Physiological > personal safety > love > self-esteem > self- actualization Research Methods 1. Case Study: someone is studied in depth 2. Naturalistic Observation: involves watching and recording behaviour of subject in natural environment; doesnt explain ... it describes 3. Survey Research: surveying population using handful (representative population) 4. Experiments: try and establish causations; can manipulate factors of interest Causation: establish which pattern is right; does A cause B or does B cause A? Module Summaries Correlation: theres some reason these two go together ... but what is it? When one variable changes, so does the other - Independent variable: what we think is the cause - Dependent variable: behaviour you are concerned with; effect of independent variable - Experimental group: exposed to independent variable - Control group: not exposed Different Schools of Psychology Empiricism: view that knowledge comes from experience via senses and scientific flourishes through experiment and observations Structuralism: used introspection to explore elemental structure of human mind Functionalism: focused on how mental and behaviour processes function how they enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish Projective Tests Thematic Apperception Test: view ambiguous pictures and make up stories about them Rorschach Inkblot Test: look at inkblots and describe what you see
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