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PSYCH 101 (174)

Midterm Preparation Guide It basically includes all the terms that need to be memorized and brief infos of each modules for the 2nd midterm.

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University of Waterloo
Collin Mc Cleod

Module 7 Brain and ConsciousnessConscious processing is serial whereas unconscious processing is parallelCluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the suprachiasmatic nucleusCognitive neuroscience is the interdisciplinary field that studies the links between brain activity and cognitionDual processing is the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracksSelective attention is the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulusInattentional blindness is a perceptual error in which we fail to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhereChange blindness occurs when we fail to notice changes in the environmentModule 8 Sleep and DreamHallucinations false sensory experience such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus occurring briefly stage 1 sleepSleep spindle dominate during stage 2 sleepDelta waves large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep predominate during stage 3 and 4 sleepWaking brain waves occur during REM sleepREM sleep is the sleep stage in which the brain and eyes are active the muscles are relaxed and vivid dreaming occurs aka paradoxical sleep ex Genital arousal increased heart beatCircadian rhythm is any regular bodily rhythm such as body temperature and sleepwakefulness that follows a 24hour cycleNarcolepsy is a sleep disorder in which the victim suffers suddenuncontrollable sleep attacks often characterizes by entry directly into REMSleep apnea is the temporary cessation of breathing while asleepNight terror is a person suffering from experiences of episodes of high arousal with apparent terror Usually occur during stage 4 sleepInsomnia is a sleep disorder in which the person regularly has difficulty in falling or staying asleepREM rebound is the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivationLatent content is the underlying but censured meaning of a dreamManifest content is the remembered story lineDream TheoriesoFreuds wishfulfillment expresses unacceptable feelings containing manifest content and a deeper layer of latent contentoInformation processing help us sort out the days events and consolidate our memoryoPhysiology function regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathwaysoActivationsynthesis REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories which our sleeping brain weaves into storiesoCognitive development dream content reflects dreamers cognitive development their knowledge and understanding Module 9 Hypnosis Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one person hypnotist suggests to another that certain perceptions feelings thoughts or behaviours will spontaneously occurA posthypnotic suggestion is a suggestion made during a hypnosis session that is to be carried out when the subject is no longer hypnotizedDissociation is a split between different levels of consciousness allowing a person to divide attention between two or more thoughts or behaviourMany psychologists believe that hypnosis is a form of normal social influence and that hypnotized people act out the role of good subjectModule 10 Drugs and ConsciousnessPsychoactive drugs include stimulants depressants and hallucinogens and are chemical substances that alter mood and perception work by mimicking the activity of neurotransmitterTolerance is the diminishing of a psychoactive drugs effect that occurs with repeated useWithdrawal refers to the discomfort and distress that follow the discontinues used of addictive drugsPhysical dependence is a physiological need for a drug that is indicated by the presence of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is not takenDepressants are psychoactive drugs such as alcohol opiates barbiturates that reduce neural activity and slow body functionsoBarbiturates sometimes are used to induce sleep or reduce anxietyoOpiates are derived from the opium poppy such morphine heroin they temporarily lessen pain and anxietyoAlcohol gives initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibition Adverse effects are depression memory loss organ damage and impaired hearingStimulants are psychoactive drugs such as caffeine nicotine amphetamines and cocaine which excite neural activity and speed up body functionsoAmphetamine type of stimulant and speed up body functions and neural activityMethamphetamine is a powerfully addictive stimulant associated with energy and mood changes Adverse effects are irritability insomnia hypertension and seizuresoCocaine gives rush of euphoria confidence and energy and its adverse effects are cardiovascular stress suspiciousness and depressive crashoCaffeine gives increased alertness and wakefulness but can lead to anxiety restlessness and insomnia with high dosesoNicotine gives arousal and relaxation and a sense of wellbeing Its adverse effects are possible heart diseases and cancerEcstasy MDMA classified as both mild hallucinogen and synthetic stimulant It produces shortterm euphoria by increasing serotonin levels in the brain Repeated use may permanently damage serotonin neurons suppress immunity and impair memory and other cognitive functionsHallucinogens are psychedelic drugs such as LSD and marijuana that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
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