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PSYCH 101 Midterm Textbook Review Part 1 of 2 This note covers all the important concepts from the PSYCH 101 textbook, on the following topics: Introduction to Science of Psychology, Developmental Psychology and Neuropsychology. The remaining three topi

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Richard Ennis

INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM REVIEW Textbook INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY MODULE 1 THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Structuralisman early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind Edward Bradford Titchener Functionalisma school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioural processes functionhow they enable us to adapt survive and flourish William James as a result of Darwins theory of evolution Behaviourismthe view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behaviour without reference to mental processes Most research psychologists totally agree with 1 but not with 2 John B Watson and BF Skinner Humanistic psychologyhistorically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growth Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Cognitive neurosciencethe interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception thinking memory and language Psychologythe science of behaviour and mental process Naturenurture issuethe longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours Todays science sees traits and behaviours arising from the interaction of nature and nurture Natural selectionthe principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Levels of analysisthe different complementary views from biological to psychological to socialcultural for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychological approachan integrated approach that incorporates biological psychological and socialcultural levels of analysis Perspective Focus Sample Questions Neuroscience How the body and brain enable How are messages transmitted within emotions memories and sensory the body How is blood chemistry linked experiences with moods and motives Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits How does evolution influence behaviour promoted the survival of genes tendencies Behaviour genetics How much our genes and our To what extent are psychological traits environment influence our individual such as intelligence personality sexual differences orientation and vulnerability to1 depression attributable to our genes To our environmentPerspective Focus Sample Questions Psychodynamic How behaviour springs from How can someones personality traits unconscious drives and conflicts and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as the disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas Behavioural How we learn observable responses How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations What is the most effective way to alter our behaviour say to lose weight or stop smoking Cognitive How we encode process store and How do we use information in retrieve information remembering Reasoning Solving problems Socialcultural How behaviour and thinking vary across How are we humans alike as members situations and cultures of one human family As products of different environmentalcontexts how do we differBasic researchpure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied researchscientific study that aims to solve practical problems Counselling psychologya branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living often related to school work or marriage and in achieving greater wellbeing Psychiatrya branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical for example drug treatments as well as psychological therapy MODULE 2 THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Hindsight biasthe tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it aka the Iknewitallalong phenomenon Critical thinkingthinking that does not blindly accept argiments and conclusions Rather it examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions Culturethe enduring behaviours ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next MODULE 3 RESEARCH STRATEGIES HOW PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS Theoryan explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events Hypothesisa testable prediction often implied by a theory Operational definitiona statement of the procedures operations used to define research variables For example human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures2
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