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PSYCH 101 Midterm Textbook Review Part 2 of 2 This is the second part of the review of the major topics and concepts from the PSYCH 101 Textbook, covered on the Midterm. It covers Sensation and Perception through Learning.

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Richard Ennis

INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM REVIEW Textbook SENSATION AND PERCEPTION MODULE 18 VISION Transductionconversion of one form of energy into another In sensation the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights sounds and smells into neural impulses our brains can interpret Wavelengththe distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission Huethe dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light what we know as the color names blue green and so forth Intensitythe amount of energy in a light or sound wave which we perceive as brightness or loudness as determined by the waves amplitude Pupilthe adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters Irisa ring of muscle tissue that forms the coloured portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening Lensthe transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina Retinathe lightsensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information Accommodationthe process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the How it works retina 1 Light entering the eye triggers photochemical Foveapoint of central focus on the retina around reactions in rods and cones at the back of the retina which the eyes cones cluster objects appear upsidedown 2 Chemical reaction in turn activates bipolar cells in front of rods and cones Rodsretinal receptors that detect black white and gray necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when 3 Bipolar cells then activate the ganglion cells in cones dont respond front of them the axons of which converge to form the optic nerve This nerve transmits information to Conesretinal receptor cells that are concentrated the visual cortex via the thalamus in the brain near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in welllit conditions The cones detect fine detail and give rise to colour sensations1
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