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Psych 101 Lecture Notes. Includes every lecture.

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Richard Ennis

Intro to Psychology The Basic Model Environment Person Behaviour Outcome Environment influences and changes behaviour of person. P x E = person interacting with their environment. A feelings emotions (affect) moods actions B what we do (behaviour) thoughts C ideas set of beliefs (cognition) decision making Perspectives of Psychology / Schools of Thoughts Psychodynamic Perspective (founder Sigmund Freud) all action takes place in the person variable (in the mind of the person) the unconscious mind of the person unconscious primary driving force between our behaviours not observable Behavioural Perspective focus on observable things people do their behaviour came out of learning theories study behaviour, not person Cognitive Perspective thought-processes going on in a persons head measure mental activities (for example with questionnaires) study how a persons thought lead to their behaviours broke the rigid hold of behavioural perspective Biological (Neuropsychology, evolution, genetics) study physical structure as well as mental structure study the brain and how it works study if our thoughts, feelings and emotions evolve Inheritance of genes and how our DNA may play our role in our behaviour Socio-Cultural focus on environmental influences in psychology of a person how we behave in groups, with friends, enemies how we behave in different situations (exams, competitions) how does culture and society influence us? Science of Psychology science is the refinement process looking in the whole nature of observation Observation: nave theories Goals (of science): understand, explain, predict, and control Refinement: we continually have to refine our theories or sometimes even change our theories > from theory to theory, revamp understand of the world by experiencing world and conducting experiments Criteria: in order to meet scientific refinement it must meet the criteria of - empirical (measurable variables, turn into numbers such as scales, tested), replicable (must be able to repeat findings, apply same study to different settings trying to replicate results), falsifiable (we must be able to prove theory wrong, a good theory is one that can be disproven, there must be a possibility that it can be proven wrong, a theory that cannot be proven wrong is not a scientific theory) Associations: correlation between subjects, positive, inverse relationship (patterns), to find out if one thing causes another an experiment must be conducted, must manipulate the independent variable (Esteem, dependent variable = depression) causal relationship Cautions: evidence and proof, nothing is ever proven to be absolutely true, truth is relative but science always looks for the untrue. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Background: The Industrial Revolution Industrial revolution has been described as the lowest point in history in terms of the treatment of children. Middle and lower class children entered labour force at the age of 12, and even mines at the age of 6 (they were used to plant the dynamite). Children worked six days a week for ten hours a day. Great Britain later introduced Child Labour Laws. Caterpillar notion, children are different than us and have very different needs; they are like a caterpillar not like the butterfly. Affective Development: Attachment Theory Attachment theory explores how we developed feelings for other people. 1950's: Two Theories of Attachment Harry Harlow conducted experiments with monkeys. Freud believed that love was a secondary emotion, the primary motive was sex. Love is a by-product of sex. Behaviourists believe love is secondary; the primary motive was an association. Harry Harlow believes the monkeys have fallen in love with the diapers (that had been so hard to pry them away from when dirty). In the absence of a real love object they have formed a love with the closest thing they have got. Suggests love is a primary instinct, the monkeys have become attached to the diapers. Monkeys were given a wire mother and cloth mother, the wire mother is fitted with a bottle, the monkey receives feeding from wire mother, Freud and behaviourists would argue the monkeys would be attached to wire mother since she gives him the sex and the food. Yet, the monkeys would spend 75% of their time with the cloth mother with the cloth mother and only two hours with the wire mother. When monkeys were frightened they would run and cling to cloth mother. When placed in a strange environment with both mothers the monkeys would cling to cloth mother and used her as a secure base. When placed in a strange environment alone or with only the wire mother they would be immobilized and would cry. Results of Harlow's (1958) Research: INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLES Infants Fed by Cloth Mother Infants Fed by Wire Mother Contact time with cloth vs wire mother Reaction to frightening object Run & cling to cloth mother Run & cling to cloth mother Run & cling to cloth mother; then Run & cling to cloth mother; then Reaction to being placed in strange environment with both mothers gradually explore using cloth mother as gradually explore using cloth mother as secure base secure base Reaction to being placed in strange Immobilized, crying, crouching, thumb- Immobilized, crying, crouching, thumb- environment with neither mother sucking sucking Reaction to being placed in strange Immobilized, crying, crouching, thumb- Immobilized, crying, crouching, thumb- environment with wire mother only sucking sucking Mary Ainsworth tries to replicate what Harlow did but with human babies. She invented experimental scenario called The Strange Situation. When baby is left alone, he is visibly upset at first but trusts his mother will be back and has left him in a safe place. Children arrive in this world with a basic instinct to fall in love; children deprived of human contact do not do well. Events in the Strange Situation Event Persons Present Duration Mother Strange environment 3 min & baby Mother, baby, Stranger anxiety 3 min & stranger Stranger 3 min Separation and stranger anxiety & baby (or less) Mother 3 min Reunion & baby (or more) 3 min Separation anxiety Baby alone (or less) Stranger 3 min Stranger anxiety & baby (or less) Mother Reunion 3 min & baby Secure attachment style = 67% in North America Two distinct style of insecure attachment patterns: o The ambivalent cannot be left alone with stranger, are very anxious and are even upset when mother returns sometimes biting or hitting her. 15% o The avoidant will appear very independent and go play with the toys right away, when reunited with mother after being with stranger it will not necessarily be a warm reunion. Cool, strong independence. 10% Infant Behaviours in Ainsworth's Strange Situation:
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