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Psych Exam 1 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Waterloo
Stephanie Denison

Psych Exam 1 Notes 02/01/2014 Module 1 Evaluate evidence by testing theories and analyzing the data collected from testing. This affects theories and hypotheses because it can either prove them wrong or right, therefore affecting their validity and reliability. Agood theory can be falsifiable, but also stand being tested vigorously, and majority of the time prove to be right. Biopsychosocial Model: Biological, psychological, sociocultural factors All factors influence the way we behave, think, feel How a person’s thoughts, experiences, emotions, and personality constitute their psychological makeup Scientific Literacy – the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information. Knowledge gathering: what do we know about this Scientific explanation Critical thinking: can we critically evaluate the evidence Application: why is this relevant History of Psychology Empiricism: a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience. Determinism: belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause-and-effect relationships. Materialism: belief that humans, and other living being, are composed exclusively of physical matter Psychophysics: study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world. Study of physical stimuli and sensational experience Influences from Evolutionary Theory Darwin: theory of evolution by natural selection. Survival and reproduction are closely related to an individuals ability to recognize some expressions as threats and others as submission Influences from Medicine Contributed to biological perspective and clinical psychology. Clinical psych: field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Brain localization: certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities and personality characteristics Phrenology: brain consisted of 27 organs corresponding to mental traits that could be detected by examining the surface of the skull Broca’sArea Psychoanalysis: explain how behaviour and personality are influenced by unconscious processes. Freud Structuralism & Functionalism Structuralism: analyze conscious experience by breaking it down into basic elements, and to understand how these elements work together. Mental experiences were made up of limited number of sensations Different sensations can form and create complex compounds Functionalism: study of the purpose and function of behaviour and conscious experience. How the mind functions How our thoughts and actions help us adapt to our environment Behaviourism and Humanism Behaviourism: first half of 20 century, studies only observable behaviour, with no reference to mental events or instincts as possible influences. Classical conditioning Humanism: unique aspects of each individual human; freedom to act, rational thought, belief that humans are fundamentally different from other animals To understand the meaning of personal experience Cognitive Revolution - European focus on thought flourished in 1900s - evidence of emerging cognitive perspective concerned study of memory Ebbignhaus: most of what a person learns will be forgotten rapidly, but then forgetting slows to a crawl Bartlett: our cultural knowledge shapes what we find important enough to remember (in films or books) - gestalt psychology: focus needs to be on the whole of perception and experience, rather than its parts - European psychologists ignored theAmerican cries to study only what can be observed Careers in Psych Applied Psychology: uses psychological knowledge to address problems and issues across various settings and professions Psychiatry: treatment of mental and behavioural disorders Forensic psych: work in criminal justice system School psych: working with students who have special needs Health psych: how individual, biological, and environmental factors affect physical health Industrial/organizational psych: work for businesses and other organizations to improve employee productivity and the organizational structure of the company or business develop tests to hire workers assist work teams to improve communication and responsibility help organizations with the management of change 02/01/2014 Module 10 02/01/2014 Methods of Measuring Development Cross-sectional design Measure and compare samples of ppl at different ages at a given point in time Negatives: Cohort effects: conseque]ces of being born in a particular yr or narrow range of yrs Positives: Convenience: more time and cost efficient Longitudinal design Follows development of same individuals through time Negatives: Costly and time-consuming Attrition: when participants stop returning mail or phone calls, become ineligible, or otherwise quit participating Sensitive period: is a window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environmental stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability New Born Reflexes Reflex: involuntary muscular reactions to specific types of stimulation The rooting reflex Stimulation to the corners of the mouth Babies orient themselves toward the stimulation and make sucking motions 02/01/2014 Purpose: help infant begin feeding immediately after birth The moro reflex When infants lose support of heads; they grimace and reach arms outwards and inwards in a hugging motion purpose: protective reflex, allows them to hold on to the mother when support is lost the grasping reflex stimulating infants palm purpose: facilitates safely holding on to one’s caregiver NIDCAP Newborn Individualized Developmental Care andAssessment Program Infants are closely observed and given intensive care during early development. They keep the brain healthy and protected against harmful experiences. The program calls for minimal lights, sound levels, and stress and painful experiences, to promote healthy brain development in preterm infants. Piaget’s Stages: on lecture notes MajorAttachment Styles Secure attachment: caregiver is a base that the child uses as he or she explores Evaluation: child plays comfortably when mother is in the room, but may or may not cry when the mother leaves and seeks contact with her upon returning Insecure attachment: Disorganized: child does not have a consistent pattern of behaviour. Child might freeze for a moment unsure of what to do next when mother leaves and returns Resistant: child is upset when the mother leaves and angry when she returns Avoidant: child not upset when mother leaves, does not seek contact upon return 02/01/2014 Physical Changes Associated with Puberty Male: Acne Beard Voice change Underarm hair, chest hair, muscle development Pubic hair Enlargement of penis, scrotum, testes Ejaculation Female: Acne Underarm hair Breast development Rounded body contours Pubic hair Enlargement of uterus, clitoris, labia Menstruation Brain Changes inAdolescents - hormonal and neurological changes are still under way 02/01/2014 - ongoing changes in prefrontal cortex: basis of some behavioural issues involved in impulse control regulates mood facilitates planning, organizing, and reasoning - myelination and synaptic pruning continue through adolescence myelination: growth of brain white matter synaptic pruning: loss of useless connections between brain cells Stages of Moral Development: Lawrence Kohlberg 1. Pre-conventional morality: self-interest in seeking reward or avoiding punishment; egocentric 2. Conventional morality: regards social conventions and rules as guides for appropriate moral behaviour 3. Post-conventional morality: considers rules and laws as relative, right and wrong determined by more abstract principles of justice and rights Changes of Self or Identity throughAdolescence: lecture notes (ex: moratorium etc.) Aging Menopause: termination of menstrual cycle, age 50 approx. Neurodegenerative conditions: characterized by significant loss of nerve cells and nervous system functioning. Dementia: set of symptoms including mild to severe disruption of mental functioning, memory loss, disorientation, poor judgment, and decision making. Alzheimer’s disease: degenerative and terminal condition resulting in sever damage of the entire brain. Fluid intelligence: processes such as problem solving and reasoning. Crystalized intelligence: based on accumulated experiences and skills. Memory Episodic: events Semantic: meaning and structure of facts Procedural: motor skills Sensory and Perception  02/01/2014 Module 4 Sensory and Perception  02/01/2014 Definitions Sensation: process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those events into neural signals Perception: involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense Sensory receptors: structures that respond to external stimuli, are stimulated Transduction: process in which physical or chemical stimulation is converted into a nerve impulse that is relayed to the brain Sensory adaptation: the reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a stimulus Psychophysics: field of study that explores how physical energy such as light and sound and their intensity relate to psychological experience Absolute threshold: minimum amount of energy or quantity of a stimulus required for it to be reliably detected at least 50% of the time it presented Difference threshold:
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