Psych Exam 1 Notes 02/01/2014
Evaluate evidence by testing theories and analyzing the data collected from testing. This affects
theories and hypotheses because it can either prove them wrong or right, therefore affecting their
validity and reliability.
Agood theory can be falsifiable, but also stand being tested vigorously, and majority of the time
prove to be right.
Biological, psychological, sociocultural factors
All factors influence the way we behave, think, feel
How a person’s thoughts, experiences, emotions, and personality constitute their psychological
Scientific Literacy – the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information.
Knowledge gathering: what do we know about this
Critical thinking: can we critically evaluate the evidence
Application: why is this relevant
History of Psychology
Empiricism: a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience.
Determinism: belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause-and-effect relationships.
Materialism: belief that humans, and other living being, are composed exclusively of physical
Psychophysics: study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental
representation of that world. Study of physical stimuli and sensational experience Influences from Evolutionary Theory
Darwin: theory of evolution by natural selection. Survival and reproduction are closely related to
an individuals ability to recognize some expressions as threats and others as submission
Influences from Medicine
Contributed to biological perspective and clinical psychology.
Clinical psych: field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnosis and treatment of
Brain localization: certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities and personality
Phrenology: brain consisted of 27 organs corresponding to mental traits that could be detected by
examining the surface of the skull
Psychoanalysis: explain how behaviour and personality are influenced by unconscious processes.
Structuralism & Functionalism
Structuralism: analyze conscious experience by breaking it down into basic elements, and to
understand how these elements work together.
Mental experiences were made up of limited number of sensations
Different sensations can form and create complex compounds
Functionalism: study of the purpose and function of behaviour and conscious experience.
How the mind functions
How our thoughts and actions help us adapt to our environment
Behaviourism and Humanism Behaviourism: first half of 20 century, studies only observable behaviour, with no reference to
mental events or instincts as possible influences.
Humanism: unique aspects of each individual human; freedom to act, rational thought, belief that
humans are fundamentally different from other animals
To understand the meaning of personal experience
- European focus on thought flourished in 1900s
- evidence of emerging cognitive perspective concerned study of memory
Ebbignhaus: most of what a person learns will be forgotten rapidly, but then forgetting slows to a
Bartlett: our cultural knowledge shapes what we find important enough to remember (in films or
- gestalt psychology: focus needs to be on the whole of perception and experience, rather than its
- European psychologists ignored theAmerican cries to study only what can be observed
Careers in Psych
Applied Psychology: uses psychological knowledge to address problems and issues across
various settings and professions
Psychiatry: treatment of mental and behavioural disorders
Forensic psych: work in criminal justice system
School psych: working with students who have special needs
Health psych: how individual, biological, and environmental factors affect physical health
Industrial/organizational psych: work for businesses and other organizations to improve
employee productivity and the organizational structure of the company or business
develop tests to hire workers
assist work teams to improve communication and responsibility
help organizations with the management of change 02/01/2014
Module 10 02/01/2014
Methods of Measuring Development
Measure and compare samples of ppl at different ages at a given point in time
Cohort effects: conseque]ces of being born in a particular yr or narrow range of yrs
Convenience: more time and cost efficient
Follows development of same individuals through time
Costly and time-consuming
Attrition: when participants stop returning mail or phone calls, become ineligible, or otherwise quit
Sensitive period: is a window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environmental
stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability
New Born Reflexes
Reflex: involuntary muscular reactions to specific types of stimulation
The rooting reflex
Stimulation to the corners of the mouth
Babies orient themselves toward the stimulation and make sucking motions 02/01/2014
Purpose: help infant begin feeding immediately after birth
The moro reflex
When infants lose support of heads; they grimace and reach arms outwards and inwards in a hugging
purpose: protective reflex, allows them to hold on to the mother when support is lost
the grasping reflex
stimulating infants palm
purpose: facilitates safely holding on to one’s caregiver
Newborn Individualized Developmental Care andAssessment Program
Infants are closely observed and given intensive care during early development. They keep the brain
healthy and protected against harmful experiences. The program calls for minimal lights, sound levels,
and stress and painful experiences, to promote healthy brain development in preterm infants.
Piaget’s Stages: on lecture notes
Secure attachment: caregiver is a base that the child uses as he or she explores
Evaluation: child plays comfortably when mother is in the room, but may or may not cry when the mother
leaves and seeks contact with her upon returning
Disorganized: child does not have a consistent pattern of behaviour. Child might freeze for a moment
unsure of what to do next when mother leaves and returns
Resistant: child is upset when the mother leaves and angry when she returns
Avoidant: child not upset when mother leaves, does not seek contact upon return 02/01/2014
Physical Changes Associated with Puberty
Underarm hair, chest hair, muscle development
Enlargement of penis, scrotum, testes
Rounded body contours
Enlargement of uterus, clitoris, labia
Brain Changes inAdolescents
- hormonal and neurological changes are still under way 02/01/2014
- ongoing changes in prefrontal cortex: basis of some behavioural issues
involved in impulse control
facilitates planning, organizing, and reasoning
- myelination and synaptic pruning continue through adolescence
myelination: growth of brain white matter
synaptic pruning: loss of useless connections between brain cells
Stages of Moral Development: Lawrence Kohlberg
1. Pre-conventional morality: self-interest in seeking reward or avoiding punishment; egocentric
2. Conventional morality: regards social conventions and rules as guides for appropriate moral
3. Post-conventional morality: considers rules and laws as relative, right and wrong determined by more
abstract principles of justice and rights
Changes of Self or Identity throughAdolescence: lecture notes (ex: moratorium etc.)
Menopause: termination of menstrual cycle, age 50 approx.
Neurodegenerative conditions: characterized by significant loss of nerve cells and nervous system
Dementia: set of symptoms including mild to severe disruption of mental functioning, memory loss,
disorientation, poor judgment, and decision making.
Alzheimer’s disease: degenerative and terminal condition resulting in sever damage of the entire brain.
Fluid intelligence: processes such as problem solving and reasoning.
Crystalized intelligence: based on accumulated experiences and skills.
Semantic: meaning and structure of facts
Procedural: motor skills Sensory and Perception 02/01/2014
Module 4 Sensory and Perception 02/01/2014
Sensation: process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those events into
Perception: involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense
Sensory receptors: structures that respond to external stimuli, are stimulated
Transduction: process in which physical or chemical stimulation is converted into a nerve
impulse that is relayed to the brain
Sensory adaptation: the reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a
Psychophysics: field of study that explores how physical energy such as light and sound and their
intensity relate to psychological experience
Absolute threshold: minimum amount of energy or quantity of a stimulus required for it to be
reliably detected at least 50% of the time it presented