COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY (CONSCIOUSNESS):
• Define consciousness. A person’s subjective awareness, including thoughts,
perceptions, experiences of the world & self-awareness
• What are circadian rhythms? Internally driven daily cycles of approx. 24 hrs affecting
psychological & behavioural process.
• Which brain structures are key in guiding circadian rhythms? Suprachiasmatic nucleus
in the hypothalamus and the pineal gland releases melatonin.
o How do we measure physiological variables during sleep? Polysomnography is
a set of objective measurements used to examine physiological levels during
o Have a general idea of how the stages of sleep progress and the
different wave forms that dominate different stages. Stage 1: theta waves; stage
2: sleep spindles & K complexes; stage 3: delta waves; stage 4: deepest level
o You can skip the section on sleep deprivation and sleep displacement
o What are the common theories of sleep? Restore & repair hypothesis and the
preserve & protect hypothesis.
o Do we know exactly why we sleep and exactly which theory is correct? A
combination of the need for restoration, repair, preservation and protection.
o What happens when we disrupt sleep? It has a negative impact on our
o In what ways can we disrupt sleep? Sleep displacement, jet lag, daylight
savings, sleep disorders.
o Is the Psychoanalytical approach to dreaming scientifically supported? Not
o How about the activation-synthesis hypothesis? When dreams arise from brain
activity originating from bursts of excitatory messages from the brainstem.
o Or the problem-solving theory of sleep? Thoughts & concerns are continuous
from working to sleeping & that dreams may function to facilitate finding
solutions to problems encountered while awake.
o What is insomnia? A disorder characterized by an extreme lack of sleep.
o Nightmares? Particularly vivid & disturbing dreams that occur during REM
o Night terrors? Intense bouts of panic & arousal that awake the individual,
typically in a heightened emotional state; occur during NREM sleep. o What is the difference between these things? Night terrors aren’t dreams, they
occur during NREM sleep.
o How do movement disturbances affect sleep? People need to remain still in
order to sleep well.
o What is sleep apnea? The temporary inability to breathe during sleep.
o Does it just affect sleep or is it commonly fatal? They can be fatal, but rarely so.
o What is narcolepsy? A disorder in which a person experiences extreme daytime
sleepiness & even sleep attacks.
o Why is sleep misperception problematic? People with SSM distress over not
getting enough sleep, while people with PSSM don’t connect their symptoms of
sleep deprivation with poor sleep.
o What are the major theories of hypnosis? The dissociation theory and the
o How do we use hypnosis now? Treatment of pain.
• What is meditation? Any procedure that involves a shift in consciousness to a state in
which an individual is highly focused, aware & in control of mental processes.
• What are the scientific facts about meditation? It reduces stress, anxiety, depression
• Don’t worry about knowing anything about Déjà vu.
• What are the differences between coma, PVS and MCS? Coma is a complete loss of
consciousness. PVS is a state of minimal to no consciousness in which the patient’s
eyes may be open & the individual will develop sleep-wake cycles without clear signs
of consciousness. Meanwhile, MCS is a disordered state of consciousness marked by
the ability to show some behaviours that suggest at least partial consciousness, even
if on inconsistent basis
• Know the differences between the major categories of drugs. Stimulants,
hallucinogens, sedatives, opiates, alcohol and marijuana.
• Don’t worry about memorizing all of the chemical effects (e.g., whether they
increase dopamine, stimulate serotonin, increase GABA). Just know the
categories and whether they result in quickly/slowly developing tolerance and a
high/low likelihood of dependence. Stimulants are high quick. Hallucinogens are slow
low. Sedative is high quick.
o What are the effects of long-term drug use? Substance abuse, tolerance &
o What is tolerance? Occurs when repeated use of a drug results in a need for a
higher dose to get the intended effect. o What is dependence? The need to take a drug to ward off unpleasant physical
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: MEMORY
• What is the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory and what other name do people use to
refer to this model (this came up in class)? Modal model of memory stating that
memory is a multistage process.
• Understand how Sperling tested Sensory memory. By comparing two conditions in a
memory experiment: the whole report & the partial report conditions.
• How has brain-imaging data provided support for the existence of distinct long term
and short-term memory stores?
• Know about the working memory model (what are the three storage components and
what are their roles?). Phonological loop is a storage component that relies on
rehearsal & stores info as sounds or an auditory code. Visuospatial sketchpad is a
storage compound that maintains visual images & spatial layouts in a visuospatial
code. Lastly, episodic buffer is a storage component of working memory that combines
the images & sounds from the other 2 components into coherent, story-like episodes.
• Why do refer to 7 as a magical number in memory research? The capacity of STM.
• How is long-term memory organized? Declarative memories, which can be divided into
semantic & episodic memories, and nondeclarative memories, which can be divided
into procedural & conditioning memories. Understand Fig. 7.7 and know each of these
• You will not be tested on the sections the “Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory”,
“Memory at the Neural Level” and “Memory at the cortical level”.
• What are the different kinds of amnesia and from what kind of amnesia did patient
H.M. suffer? Retrograde and anterograde amnesia. H.M suffered from anterograde