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PSYCH 101 (177)


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Stephanie Denison

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY (CONSCIOUSNESS): • Define consciousness. A person’s subjective awareness, including thoughts, perceptions, experiences of the world & self-awareness • What are circadian rhythms? Internally driven daily cycles of approx. 24 hrs affecting psychological & behavioural process. • Which brain structures are key in guiding circadian rhythms? Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus and the pineal gland releases melatonin. • Sleep: o How do we measure physiological variables during sleep? Polysomnography is a set of objective measurements used to examine physiological levels during sleep. o Have a general idea of how the stages of sleep progress and the different wave forms that dominate different stages. Stage 1: theta waves; stage 2: sleep spindles & K complexes; stage 3: delta waves; stage 4: deepest level of sleep o You can skip the section on sleep deprivation and sleep displacement o What are the common theories of sleep? Restore & repair hypothesis and the preserve & protect hypothesis. o Do we know exactly why we sleep and exactly which theory is correct? A combination of the need for restoration, repair, preservation and protection. o What happens when we disrupt sleep? It has a negative impact on our performance. o In what ways can we disrupt sleep? Sleep displacement, jet lag, daylight savings, sleep disorders. o Is the Psychoanalytical approach to dreaming scientifically supported? Not supported o How about the activation-synthesis hypothesis? When dreams arise from brain activity originating from bursts of excitatory messages from the brainstem. o Or the problem-solving theory of sleep? Thoughts & concerns are continuous from working to sleeping & that dreams may function to facilitate finding solutions to problems encountered while awake. o What is insomnia? A disorder characterized by an extreme lack of sleep. o Nightmares? Particularly vivid & disturbing dreams that occur during REM sleep. o Night terrors? Intense bouts of panic & arousal that awake the individual, typically in a heightened emotional state; occur during NREM sleep. o What is the difference between these things? Night terrors aren’t dreams, they occur during NREM sleep. o How do movement disturbances affect sleep? People need to remain still in order to sleep well. o What is sleep apnea? The temporary inability to breathe during sleep. o Does it just affect sleep or is it commonly fatal? They can be fatal, but rarely so. o What is narcolepsy? A disorder in which a person experiences extreme daytime sleepiness & even sleep attacks. o Why is sleep misperception problematic? People with SSM distress over not getting enough sleep, while people with PSSM don’t connect their symptoms of sleep deprivation with poor sleep. o What are the major theories of hypnosis? The dissociation theory and the social-cognitive theory. o How do we use hypnosis now? Treatment of pain. • What is meditation? Any procedure that involves a shift in consciousness to a state in which an individual is highly focused, aware & in control of mental processes. • What are the scientific facts about meditation? It reduces stress, anxiety, depression and pain. • Don’t worry about knowing anything about Déjà vu. • What are the differences between coma, PVS and MCS? Coma is a complete loss of consciousness. PVS is a state of minimal to no consciousness in which the patient’s eyes may be open & the individual will develop sleep-wake cycles without clear signs of consciousness. Meanwhile, MCS is a disordered state of consciousness marked by the ability to show some behaviours that suggest at least partial consciousness, even if on inconsistent basis • Know the differences between the major categories of drugs. Stimulants, hallucinogens, sedatives, opiates, alcohol and marijuana. • Don’t worry about memorizing all of the chemical effects (e.g., whether they increase dopamine, stimulate serotonin, increase GABA). Just know the categories and whether they result in quickly/slowly developing tolerance and a high/low likelihood of dependence. Stimulants are high quick. Hallucinogens are slow low. Sedative is high quick. o What are the effects of long-term drug use? Substance abuse, tolerance & dependence. o What is tolerance? Occurs when repeated use of a drug results in a need for a higher dose to get the intended effect. o What is dependence? The need to take a drug to ward off unpleasant physical withdrawal symptoms. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: MEMORY • What is the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory and what other name do people use to refer to this model (this came up in class)? Modal model of memory stating that memory is a multistage process. • Understand how Sperling tested Sensory memory. By comparing two conditions in a memory experiment: the whole report & the partial report conditions. • How has brain-imaging data provided support for the existence of distinct long term and short-term memory stores? • Know about the working memory model (what are the three storage components and what are their roles?). Phonological loop is a storage component that relies on rehearsal & stores info as sounds or an auditory code. Visuospatial sketchpad is a storage compound that maintains visual images & spatial layouts in a visuospatial code. Lastly, episodic buffer is a storage component of working memory that combines the images & sounds from the other 2 components into coherent, story-like episodes. • Why do refer to 7 as a magical number in memory research? The capacity of STM. • How is long-term memory organized? Declarative memories, which can be divided into semantic & episodic memories, and nondeclarative memories, which can be divided into procedural & conditioning memories. Understand Fig. 7.7 and know each of these terms. • You will not be tested on the sections the “Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory”, “Memory at the Neural Level” and “Memory at the cortical level”. • What are the different kinds of amnesia and from what kind of amnesia did patient H.M. suffer? Retrograde and anterograde amnesia. H.M suffered from anterograde amnesia.
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