PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW
A way of learning about the world through collecting observations, proposing explanations for the
observations, developing theories to explain them & using the theories to make predictions
1. Define the Problem
2. Observe the Phenomenon
3. Form a Hypothesis
4. Test the Hypothesis
5. Analyze Results
6. Draw Conclusions
7. Share Results
Theory to Hypothesis
A theory is a tested principle, while a hypothesis is an assumption that is yet to be tested. Theories
How do we evaluate evidence?
Using scientific method to make theories that generate hypotheses.
How does this affect subsequent theories & hypotheses?
It will either prove/disprove a theory and create new hypotheses.
What makes a good theory?
It has been repeatedly tested and produced similar, if not the same, results most times. It eventually
becomes an accepted explanation.
How does the biopsychosocial model fit into psych?
Psych is a scientific study of behaviour & experience, the biopsychosocial model is a means of
explaining behaviour as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
What does it mean to be scientifically literate?
Have the ability to understand, analyze & apply scientific information.
Can you explain the difference between empiricism, determinism and materialism?
Empiricism is the belief that people learn from experience while determinism believes that all events
are governed by causeandeffect, and materialism is the belief that humans are simply living beings
composed of physical matter. Why is psychophysics so important?
It is the relationship between the physical world & the mental representation of the world.
What are the influences of medicine and evolutionary theory?
What are the differences between structuralism and functionalism?
Structuralism is the breaking down a conscious experience into basic elements, while functionalism is
the study of purpose & function of behaviour and conscious experience.
What are the differences between Behaviorism and Humanism?
Behaviorism is primarily concerned with the concepts of stimulus and response and conditioning,
while humanism looks at motivations, desires, purpose, and other existential concepts to explain why
we feel or act a certain way.
What inspired the cognitive revolution?
European psychologists retained an emphasis on thinking.
History of Psychology
1850 G. Fechner pioneers the study of psychophysics
1859 Darwin introduces his theory of evolution
1883 G. Stanley Hall establishes 1 psychology laboratory in the US
1880s F. Galton develops the study of anthropometrics
1892 APA is established
1894 M. Washburn is first woman to receive a PhD is psychology
1912 M. Wertheimer establishes field of gestalt psychology
1967 U. Neisser introduced cognitive psychology as a new subfield of psychology
1988 Establishment of APS
1990s George H.W Bush proclaims the 90s to be “The Decade of the Brain”
2003 Human Genome Project us completed
Influences from physics: experimenting with the mind
Influences from evolutionary theory: the adaptive function of behavior
Influences from medicine: diagnoses & treatments
Influence of social sciences: measuring & comparing humans
Structuralism & functionalism: the beginnings of psychology
Rise of Behaviourism
Humanistic psychology emerges
The cognitive revolution
Social & cultural influences
What do Kant’s faculties of mind translate into for Hilgard? Kant believed that knowledge, feeling & desire are faculties of mind, and Hilgard believed cognition,
motivation & emotion.
What is the Doctrine of Mentalism?
The Doctrine of Mentalism is that the mind is the true reality and that objects exist only as aspects of
the mind's awareness.
How do we think about the different levels of explanation from different disciplines?
1) Knowledge and beliefs
2) Drive, needs and goals
3) Feelings and moods
How does Psychology fit into the Social Sciences? Biological Sciences? Physical Sciences?
Social: social interaction and culture
Biological: cellular biology & genetics
Physical: physical stimuli vs. psychological state
What is the scope of Psychology?
The scope of psychology seeks to understand the nature of human actions and thoughts. It is a process
What are the three basic aspects of quality scientific research?
How does one improve generalizability?
Using random samples.
How does one reduce bias?
Provide anonymity & confidentiality to the volunteers
Provide full information to volunteers
What is the difference between exploratory research and theory testing? What is empirical
Exploratory research researches phenomenon with no predefined theory. Theory testing tests theories
about cause and effect relationships among variables. Empirical research the recording of one’s direct
What is the difference between correlational and experimental research? What are the
benefits/pitfalls of each? Correlational research involves measuring the degree of association between 2 or more variables,
which is the same as experimental research except that experimental method has 2 unique elements:
1) experimental method and 2) quasiexperimental method
Can you describe the Milgram video? What were subjects told the experiment was about?
That the subjects were being electrocuted to see if pain affected a person’s thought.
What was it really about? Would the experiment be approved by an ethics review board now?
What are the two most common ways of measuring developmental data and what are the
positives/negatives of each approach?
What is a sensitive period?
A window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environmental stimulation is needed
for normal development of a specific ability.
What are the newborn reflexes? For what purpose did each develop?
Rooting reflex: helps the infant begin feeding immediately after birth
Moro reflex: allows infant to hold onto the mother when support i