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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY II- Week 7 A. Cognitive Psychology II: Perception, Preconceptions and Judgment • For perception, keep in mind that whole is not equal to the sum of its parts o Figure and ground in perception o Gestalt principles • Our knowledge and preconceptions shape our perceptions o Illusions o Perceptual set • Judgment under uncertainty o Heuristics in judgment o Artificial intelligence B. Perception • Gestalt psychologists o The whole is not equal to the sum or its parts o Our thoughts and preconceptions shape what we perceive o We don’t perceive reality; reality may be out there in the abstract, but out perception are out take on reality o We do not see exactly what is out there, our perceptions are shaped by our thought o See through lens of our thoughts and preconceptions o Figure is what stands out; ground is what is behind that is not being perceived at the moment that you are looking at it. o Figure/ground perceptions tell us that we taking the stimuli and adding our preconceptions and understandings to it, thus influencing what we see o Grouping principles: groups thing that are close together as belonging to one another o Group things due to proximity and similarity, continuity, connectedness o Principal of closure: things point in certain direction, you want to close the space with lines. Implying meaning when its physically not there at all o Principles of Good Form: see things as a whole, even if not there. C. Our knowledge and preconceptions shape our perceptions • Thoughts, preconceptions, beliefs influence what we see in the world • Thinking influences our perception of things in the world around us D. Judgment under uncertainty 1. Schemas and Heuristics • Thoughts are influenced by the way we think about the world o In particular, our judgments that we make are influenced by the world • Schemas o The ways in which we think about the world o How we come to understand what the world is like o Shortcut summaries of what the world is like • Heuristics o Simple ways to think about things o Shortcut strategies we use when we are making decisions • Why do we need schemas? o There is so much information that we are exposed to tat we cannot possibly remember it all o We have to decide what we pay attention to and what we do not pay attention to o We need to summarize al the information that is coming in from all 5 senses and decide what is most important o If we are
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