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MIDTERM Lecture Notes.docx

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Richard Ennis

PSYCH Midterm Notes CONTENT OF PSYCHOLOGY The A, B, Cs of Psychology Affect: emotion, feelings, moods Behaviour: actions that humans engage in (what humans do, how they behave towards each other) Cognition: the various mental processes that we engage in - Thinking, decision-making, rationalizing The Basic Model Eg. When investigating aggression, study the interactions between the person, environment, person and the environment. The interaction between the person and the environment produces behaviour and results in an outcome. Environment PERSON BEHAVIOUR OUTCOME PERSPECTIVES OF PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHODYNAMIC: action is taking place in the unconscious mind - Freud believed human experience and behaviour come from a persons unconscious mind - Humans struggle with various inner conflicts - Eros vs. Phanytos (Life force vs. death wish): eros is the evolutionary force that moved human species forward, phanytos was counter-evolutionary force that moved human evolution backwards BEHAVIOURAL: the real action takes place outside of the individual, in the observable human behaviour - Started in 1950s - The interaction between the environment and the human; believed that human behaviour was influenced by the environment - Focused on human behaviour rather than what was going on inside the individual - Studied stimulus-response (how individuals reacted to the environment) Eg. If someone was aggressive, it was because of some influence from their environment - Diametrically opposed with the psychodynamic theory COGNITIVE: reasoning, conscious mind - Focused on questioning individuals and looking at the cognitive processes rather than focusing solely on their unconscious mind or the environment - Came because the behavioural perspective was too strict - How we encode, process, and store information BIOLOGICAL: cannot study psychology without studying the science - Started in 1960s-70s - Began studying the actual physical brain; biology and psychology merged together (neuropsychology) - Neuropsychology: interested in the working of the brain, neurons, chemical messengers - Evolutionary: Charles Darwin asked if humans thoughts, behaviours, and actions have evolved Eg. feeling of fear used for survival under certain conditions - Genetics: genetic linkage in human behaviour, attitudes o Is there a genetic coding that makes some people more susceptible to certain stimuli? (eg. aggression, depression, schizophrenia ) o There are genetic predispositions towards certain behaviours( depression, aggression, etc.): does not mean it is predetermined, it is only activated when right conditions or an event comes along and triggers it o Interaction between the genetics and environment SOCIO-CULTURAL: the final perspective that is compatible with everything else - Started in 1960-70s - Human beings are social creatures so when you study one person, you have to understand social psychology (eg. look at their family, friends, society, culture) - Social environment is critical when it comes to a persons thoughts, feelings, and actions What advantage do we gain in using the biophysical approach in studying psychological events? By incorporating different levels of analysis, the biophysical approach can provide a more complete view than any 1 perspective could offer SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY: You can see a lot just by looking - Yogi The whole of science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday thinking -Albert Einstein Truth is arrived at by the painstaking process of eliminating the untrue- Sherlock Holmes OBSERVATION: nave theories came from people observing something, wondering about it, and investigating the answers GOALS: understand, explain, predict, and control - If you are able to predict the phenomenon, you may be able to control it o Knowing which population is more susceptible to depression, you can alleviate it SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF REFINEMENT: from theory to theory - Put the theory to the test and meet the criteria CRITERIA OF SCIENCE: empirical, replicable, falsifiable - Empirical: have a way of measuring what one is talking about, able to put things in numbers o Such as having a questionnaire that calculates score of self esteem - Replicable: demonstrate that it is applicable to the wider generation, not just people of one region, occupation, sex, or age o The same results occur to other groups of people o The more times you replicate your findings, the more accurate the findings are - Falsifiable: the theory is only considered a scientific theory if it can be falsified / can be disproven o the test is run to prove the experiment wrong not right o homunculus theory that little green men control our bodies and brains cannot ever be proven false, therefore, it is not a scientific theory ASSOCIATIONS: correlation and causal Correlational: involves measuring something and seeing how the scores correlate with a certain outcome - the relation between two things o Low self-esteem and depression - Does not answer the cause and effect relationship, which one happens first/ which one leads to the other? Causal research: manipulate and find the results o Eg. test group A by giving them low self-esteem and administering the depression test then test group B by giving them high self-esteem and administering the depression test. Compare. CAUTIONS: evidence and proof DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY BACKGROUND 1950s - During this time, if a child was not of noble birth, you were likely to follow in your parents footsteps (if your parent was a farmer, you would be a farmer) - When the industrial revolution comes along, the need for child labour increased o Factories, climb underneath machinery to clean, plant dynamites in mines - Work long hours from a young age therefore there was a low life expectancy Sapling Theory: children were just viewed as small adults and were no special in any way Caterpillar Perspective: Children are different from adults and should be treated differently just like how caterpillars will become butterflies in the future AFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT: ATTACHMENT THEORY Psychodynamic Perspective: sexual instinct - Freud believed that a child was going through a sexual stage of development at a young age and driven by that rather than love for the mother - would satisfy this sexual gratification through mouth contact with the mother Behaviourist View: the child is driven by a natural instinct of survival - therefore, the baby would be attached to the mother because she was the main provider of food and water - there was no love, just gratification provided by sustenance; hunger and thirst Quality that both theories share is that love is secondary and only comes from the child being taken care of Harry Harlow (behaviourist): - Behaviourists tend to use animal research Basic Research Design and Results Research found that chimpanzees held in captivity lose the motherly power and the infant mortality was 100%. Baby chimpanzees were then removed from the mother and taken care of by research assistants. The cages were lined with cotton pads and would be replaced by the research assistants. However, every time the cotton pads were removed, the chimpanzee baby would grab it and start crying. Evolutionary Function of Attachment Because the baby chimpanzees were removed from the mother at such a young age, they are deprived of their mothers love. Harry Harlow hypothesized that babies find motherly love in the cotton pads because they are slightly soft and are the tangible object that the monkey can be attached to. Therefore, he went and conducted several experiments Monkeys were raised with 2 surrogate mothers: wire mother and cotton mother - Monkey is fed and heated by the wire mother, it is predicted that the baby should be more attached to wire mother because it satisfies both the sexual and physical drive - However, the research proves that the babies are more attached to the cloth mother in every situation o Reaction to a frightening object: run and cling to the cloth mother o Reaction to being placed in strange environment with both mothers: run & cling to cloth mother and gradually use cloth mother as a secure base
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