May 16, 2013 Perception
Consciousness experience is an active reconstructive process.
Review: Size constancy: Proximal stimulus does not equal the percept. Distal
stimulus: the thing out there. Proximal stimulus: retinal image. Percept: recognition
Bottom up and top down work together!
Bottom up processes: Pick up little pieces of environment and piecing them
together to create a bigger picture.
Three general classes:
1. Template matching: correspondence between external stimulus and stored
pattern in memory (internal template) Problems: you need lots of templates
and need to have an exact match. How did new ones come in? Does not deal
with variation of stimuli.
2. Feature analysis: Objects are combinations of features. First we recognize the
features then we recognize the combinations. Why is this better than
templates? More flexible than template. Don’t need to match 100% but need
to have familiar features. There is also a reduced number of templates
because you only store the basics, that can apply or form different things.
3. Prototype matching: Matching pattern to stored representation. Which is
idealized. The most basic and typical “dog” the doggiest dog. An exact match
is not required. There are not necessary features like in feature analysis.
Much more flexible than any before. The more features the more likelihood
of a match.
Top down process: Your knowledge and expectations can bias the way you
perceive things. It’s about context. Perception does seem driven by
Change blindness: http://youtu.be/FWSxSQsspiQ
Other views of perception/Unusual perception:
Direct perception: it is contrasted with the constructivist. They say that we
construct our views using info) view and people directly infer affordances (things
that we can work with in front of us) in environment. But here they say that we
don’t need to manipulate the info. (Unlike