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Exam Review Text book notes for exam review: Chapter 7,8,9

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Jonathan Fugelsang

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AllenBrooks 1991 Conducted a clever experiment that demonstrated how specific prior examples influence categorization over and above the use of simple defining features Experiment that demonstrated how prior example influences categorization over use of simple defining featureExperiment to demonstrate how specific prior examples influence categorization over and above the use of simple defining featuresBuilderscreatures lived in shelters built from materials available in their environmentLooked at the degree to which item categorization of specific creatures influenced from trainingDiggers live in holes they dugBuilder long legs angular body spotsFound that similarity to previous exemplars stored in memory influenced the categorization despite participants having a simple and sufficient categorization rule to followPeople have previously stores exemplers which influene categorization even though they have simple rules to followignore those rules and are influenced by the previously store exemplarsAllan Pavio 1969 DUAL CODING HYPOTHESIS2 distinct coding systems for representing information to be stored1 VERBAL information about items abstract linguistic meaning2 IMAGERY mental pictures of some sort that represent what the item looks like Assumed that visual imagery unlike verbal labelling increases as a function of concreteness The more concrete the noun the richer the image and the more elaborated the internal code Analogue debate which is why pictures are remembered better than words When items are coded by bith images and verbal labels the chances of the learners retrieving them are obviously betterIf verbal labelling is forgotten can still remember visual image vice versaArmstrongGlietman 1983Demonstrated additional problems with typicality ratings BarsalouPeople theories or mental explanations about the world are intertwined with their concepts and provide the basis for categorization Barsalou 1985 87Roth and Shober 83Showed typicality of an instance depends to some extent on context Benjamin WhorfThe language or languages one grows up learning and speaking this determine the way one perceives the world organizes information about the world and thinksBiedermanGerharasteinWhen people view 3D shapes as a long as the distinctive geons of the objects remain visible people can recognize objects without mental rotationBower 1970 RELATIONAL ORGANIZATION HYPOTHESISAlternative to dual coding hypothesisImagery improved memory not because images are necessarily richer than verbal labels but because imagery produces more associations between the items to be recalled
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