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Final

Exam Review Notes for chapter 10, covering both lecture and textbook material

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 207
Professor
Jonathan Fugelsang
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch 10 Baron 1994 ch 10 Thinking What we do in doubt about how to act what to believe or what to desireBartlett 1958 ch 10 Thinking Complex high level skill that fills up the gaps in evidenceBruner 1967 ch 10 Thinking Going beyond the information given Focused Thinking begins with a clear starting point and has a specific goal Unfocused thinking character of day dreaming or unintentionally calling to mind a number of difference and loosely related ideas GENERAL DEF OF THINKING ch 10 A cognitive process that goes beyond the information given Providing multiple examples helps participants to form an abstract schema convergence schema which they later apply to new analogous problems o Catrambone and Holyoak suggested further that unless participants were explicitly asked to compare stories they did not form the necessary schema with which to solve the problemBelievability effectPeople are likely to judge as valid any conclusion that reinforces their initial assumptions regardless of whether the conclusion follows from the premises Evans Barston pollard Thompson Torrens Cramer Browne and Cruse Incubation Participants in another study on incubation effects reported that during the break period they surreptitiously thought aloud about the problem In fact participants in another experiemental condition who during the break were prevented from this covert thinking about the problem by having them memorize a text passage showed very few effects of incubation Ceraso Provitera woodworth Sells Performance on many categorical syllogisms is error prone Chase and Novice 1973 ch 10 compared novice and expert chess players foundExpert chess players were able to extract much more information from a brief exposure to a chess board than novices Experts could recall more items from a brief exposure than novices BUT expertnovice differences were only evident when pieces of the chess board were configured to depict a possible chess game when the chess pieces were random no differences were detected because o When experts were presented with a meaningful configuration they were able to draw on their extensive memories of past plays and games Novices do not have that extensive long term memory base and were forced to simply try to maintain that information in their working memoryChase and Simon replication studyThe more expertisea chess player had the more information he extracted even from brief exposures to chess boards set up to reflect an ongoing chess gameWhen a chess master and chess beginner are both shown a chess board for 5 secs the chess master will remember more about where the pieces are placedbut only if the pieces are configured to depict a possible chess game Chi Feltovich and Glaser 1981 ch 10Experts and novices approach problems such as skilled games chess textbook problem in physics geometry etc DifferentlyExperts when given a series of problems to categorize tended to organize the problems in terms of principles or underlying structures of the problem Novices focused on superficial features of the problemExperts see and represent a problem in their domain at a deeper and more principled level than do novices who tend to represent information superficiallyo ie when solving problems experts tend to organize the problems in terms of psychics stprinciples Newtons 1 law of motionsnovices instead tend to focus on the objects mentioned in the probleminclined place or frictionless surface o experts also spend more time analysing a problem trying to understand it where novices are more likely to plunge in and start looking for solutions o Throughout process of problem solving experts are more likely to check for errors in thinkingContent effect two people reasoning with exactly the same kind of premises will perform differently depending on what the preemies are about Disconfirmation hypothesisThis view states that people are more critical of conclusions they do not believe and are thus more likely to search for reasons to refute or disconfirm an unbelievable conclusion than a believable one Edwards Smith KoehlerValerie Thompson and colleagues tested this hypothesesBy meaning participants reaction time as they reason it a series of categorical syllogisms containing believable and unbelievable conclusionsFound that reasonosner took longer to reason with believable than about unbeliever conclusionsPeople reason longer with believable concisions because they try harder to justify their acceptanceIntrospection ch 10 Detailed concurrent and non judgemental observations of the contents of your own consciousness as you work through a problem Key to proper use of this technique is to avoid doing more than is asked for dont explain or justify yourself just report itGalotti Baron SabiniWith practice some people seem to develop their own shortcut rules for solving syllogismsGenerate and Test Technique ch 10 Involves generating a number of potential solutions and then testing to see if the solution fits Only useful for a limited number of possibilities Possibly due to limited cognitive capacity Gick and Holyoak 1980 ch 10
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