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Psych 211 Exam #3 Complete Textbook Notes

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Mathieu Le Corre

131 SelfControlSelfcontrolthe ability to control ones behaviour and to inhibit impulsive responding to temptationsBeginnings of SelfControlSelfcontrol emerges in infancy and gradually improves during the preschool years1 yearinfants are aware that people impose demands on them and they must react to them o Ex dont touch Its hot2 yearstoddlers have internalized some of the controls imposed by others and are capable of some selfcontrol in their parents absence remember what their parents told them3 yearschildren are capable of selfregulation involves flexible and adaptive control processes that can meet quickly changing situational demands o Children can devise ways to regulate their own behaviourDelayedreward test o 13 of the 68 year olds waited for the larger reward oof the 911 year olds waited for the larger reward o Nearly all of the 1215 year olds waited a day to obtain the larger rewardChildren who are less likely to touch prohibited toys are more likely to spontaneously confess to misdeeds at home and more likely to do as asked at home without parental supervision4 year olds who waited longer were better able to exert selfcontrol at 1518 years of age were more attentive and able to plan and had higher SAT scoresInfluences on SelfControlThere is a link between greater selfcontrol with a disciplinary style in which parents are warm and loving but establish welldefined limits on what behaviour is acceptable o Parentchild interactions about discipline should be dialogues filled with suggestions and negotiation not monologues where the parents simply assert their power give ordersParenting styles o Inductive reasoningencouraging the child to reason to think for themselves o Power assertionparent lays down the law with no explanation do it because I say soCONCLUSION Inductive reasoning is the form of discipline more likely to lead to moral developmentChildrens selfcontrol is usually lower when parents are very strict with them o By telling children to do 1 thing but not another parents do not give their children the opportunity or incentive to internalize controlCONCLUSION Very strict parents actually hinder their childrens internalization of control and standards the child is more reliant on external control and less able to exercise selfcontrolTemperament also influences childrens selfcontrol o Emotional toddlers are less able to control themselvesThe aspect of temperament thats most important for self control is anxiety and fearfulness o Some anxiousfearful children become nervous at the prospect of potential wrongdoing o A simple parental reminder usually guarantees compliance because they are so anxious about not following instructions getting caught or having to confess to a misdeedFor children who are not naturally fearful at the thought of misdeeds it is more effective to use positive appeals build on the strong attachment relationship between parent and child o Fearless children comply with parents requests out of positive feelings for a loved one not out of distress caused by fear of misdeedsCooperation and selfrestraint are more highly valued in Chinese society than NA children may internalize these behaviours more readily and early in China compared to Canada o Chinese toddlers are more likely to be willingly compliant and less likely to protestImproving Childrens SelfControlWays to resist temptation 1 Reminding yourself of the importance of longterm goals over shortterm temptations 2 Reducing the attraction of the tempting eventWhen 35 year olds were given the delayedreward test some were able to wait longer than othersThey were able to resist temptation by using private speech to control their behaviour or engage in other activities to distract themselves from the temptation o Ex saying to themselves Ive gotta wait to get the best prize o Ex singing dancing or fidgetingChildren who have a concrete way of handling these situations are far better able to resist temptation effective plans include 1 Reminders to avoid looking at the tempting object 2 Reminders of rules against touching a tempting object 3 Activities designed to divert attention from the tempting object ex playing with others Reasoning about Moral Issues
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