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Midterm

Test 1 Textbook Notes - Chapters 1-4 Extremely detailed, color coded, and organized textbook notes! Includes all definitions in bold and objectives given by the professor. *Notes are from the textbook called "Infants and Children" by Laura E. Berk*

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 211
Professor
Tom Ruttan
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter NotesPSYCH 211Chapter 1The Field of Child DevelopmentoIntroductionoCommon goal for those studying thisto describe and identify factors that influence the consistencies and changes in young people during the first two decades of lifeoInterdisciplinaryCombined efforts of people from many fields oDomains of developmento3 broad domainseach influences and is influenced by the others PhysicalChanges in the bodyCognitiveChanges in intellectual abilitiesEmotionalSocialChanges in interpersonal skills emotional communications etc oPeriods of DevelopmentoPrenatalConceptionbirthoInfancytoddlerhoodBirth2 yearsBeginnings of language first intimate ties to othersoEarly childhood26 yearsSense of morality ties with peersoMiddle childhood611 yearsNew responsibilities that resemble those of adultsoAdolescence 1118 yearsPuberty autonomy from familyDefine personal values and goals oEmerging adulthood1825 yearsIn many contemporary places transition to adulthood has prolonged hence this last stage that is beginning to be used Basic IssuesoIntroductionoTheories are vital for two reasonsGuide and give meaning to what we seeServe as a sound basis for practical actionunderstand and improveoA theorys continued existence depends on scientific verificationoWith child development there is no ultimate truth because investigators do not always agree on the meaning of what they seeoContinuous or Discontinuous DevelopmentoIf continuous a child cannot perform skills with as much information and precision as we canGradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin withoIf discontinuous their thoughts emotions and behavior differ considerably from those of adults will eventually reach highest level of functioning through steps A process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific timesThese theories take place in stagesQualitative changes that characterize specific periods of developmentsChange is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing oOne Course of Development or ManyoStage theorists assume people everything follow the same sequence of developmentoHowever children grow up in distinct contextsDifferent circumstances foster different cognitive capacities social skills etc oContemporary theorists regard contexts as manylayered and complexPersonal and environmental sidesCultural diversityoRelative Influence of Nature and NurtureoTheories vary in the emphasis of naturenurtureoStability Emphasized when theorists believe children who are highlow in a characteristic will remain so at later ages Stress the importance of heredity oChangeOthers believe that we are able to change oA Balanced Point of ViewoPositions of many theorists have softenedoMany acknowledge that development has both universal features and features unique to the individual and his or her contentsResilient ChildrenResiliencethe ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to developmentHistorical Foundations oMedieval TimesoClear awareness existed of children as vulnerable beingsoReligious writingsdevil in need of purification at other times angelsoThe ReformationoChildren are born evil and stubbornoModerate balance between severity and permissivenessoPhilosophies of the EnlightenmentoConceptions of childhood were more humaneoJohn LockeForerunner of behaviorismViewed child as tabula rasaBlank slate whos character is shaped entirely by experience Continuous growth Parents were rational tutorsPraise and approval as rewardsNurture was importantMany courses of development change at later agesDo little to influence their own destinyContemporary theories however view children as active purposeful beingsoJeanJacques RousseauNew viewview children as noble savagesNaturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly health growthHarmed by adult training adult should be receptive to childs needs2 influential conceptso MaturationGenetically determined naturally unfolding course of growthoStage In contrast to Locke thought children as determining their own destiniesDiscontinuous stagewise process that follows a single unified course mapped out by nature oScientific BeginningsoDarwin Forefather of Scientific Child StudyoThe Normative PeriodHall regarded as found of childstudy movementLaunched normative approachMeasures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and agerelated averages are computed to respresent typical developmentCollected detailed normative information done with questionnairesFirst to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parentsChildren are naturally knowledgeable about their needsRecommended sensitivity to childs cuesoThe Mental Testing MovementAlfred Binet
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