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Test 3 Textook Notes - Chapter 8-9 Excellent textbook notes, bolded definitions. ~23 pages of very organized and well spaced notes. *Notes taken from "Infants and Children" by Laura E. Berk - applies to 6th and 7th editions*

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Tom Ruttan

Chapter NotesPSYCH 211Chapter 8Body Growth by age 5 body proportions are similar to those of adults depending on culture we should not view short stature as a sign of problems with growth or healthSkeletal Growth between ages 2 and 6 there are appx 45 new epiphyseswhere cartilage hardens into bone xray of growth centers enable doctors to estimate childrens skeletal age can be helpful in diagnosing growth disorders end of preschool yearschildren start losing their baby teeth can depend on genetics nutritional factors diseased baby teeth can affect the health of permanent teeth another factor for teeth is protection from exposure to tobacco smoke which suppresses childrens immune system including ability to fight bacteria Brain Development age 26brain increases from 70 of its adult weight to 90 also undergoes reshaping and refining overabundance of synaptic connections supports plasticity synaptic pruning then follows rapid growth of frontal lobe from 36 yrs attention and planning behavior and also left hemisphere activity right hemisphere activity increases steadily throughout early and middle childhood with spurt between 810 synaptic density rises during the first three years then falls to adult level around 10Differences in rate of development between two hemispheres suggest they are continuing to lateralize Handedness by end of first year children show a hand preference handedness reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brainindividuals dominant cerebral hemisphereto carry out skilled motor action 90 right handed brains of left handers tend to be less strongly lateralized then those of righthanders many left handers are ambidextrous prenatal events may profoundly affect handedness twins are more likely than ordinary siblings to differ in hand preference most likely because twins usually lie in opposite orientations in the uterus newborns bias in head position causes them to spend more time looking at and using one hand most lefthanders have no developmental problems may actually have some advantagesOther Advances in Brain Development at rear and base of braincerebellumstructure that aids in balance and control of body movement fibers linking cerebellum to the cerebral cortex grow and myelin ate from birth through preschool years contributes to dramatic gains in motor coordination these connections also support thinking the reticular formationmaintains alertness and consciousness generates synapses and myelinates throughout early childhood and into adolescence neurons send out fibers to other areas of the brain many of which go to frontal lobes and aid in controlled attentionhippocampusplays vital role in memory and in images of spaceundergoes rapid formation of synapses and myelination in the second half of the first year also makes connections with frontal lobes and aids with dramatic gains in memory and spatial understandingcorpus callosum large bundle of fibers that connects the twohemispheres supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body and integration of many aspects of thinking the more complex the task the more critical the communication production of synapses and myelination increase at 1 year peak between 3 and 6 and continue at a slower pace through middle childhood and teensInfluences on Physical Growth and HealthHeredity and Hormones genes influence growth by controlling the bodys production of hormones the pituitary glandlocated at base of brain and plays critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growthGH and TSH growth hormone GHnecessary from birth on for development of all body tissues except CNS and genitals synthetic GH has been used in attempt to treat short normalGH children but they grow only slightly taller those however that lack GH grow significantly more when treated thyroidstimulating hormone TSH prompts thyroid gland in neck to release thyroxin which is necessary for brain development infants born with a deficiency must receive it at once or they will be mentally retarded Emotional WellBeing extreme emotional deprivation can interfere with production of GH and lead to psychosocial dwarfismgrowth disorder that occurs between 2 and 15 yrsshort stature decreased GH immature skeletal age and serious adjustment problems
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