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Kathleen Bloom

Chapter 8 Physical development in early childhood26 play years Body GrowthChildren add 23 inches in height and 5 pounds in weight each year Children become thinnerPosture and balance improveAverage norath America boy43 inches and 42 pounds Skeletal growthBetween 2645 new epiphyses emergeEnd of preschoolstart to lose their primary baby teeth Brain development Between 2 6 brain increases from 70 to 90 of adult weightImprove physical coordination perception attention memory language logical thinking and imaginationAge 4prefrontal cortex has double the synapses an adult has Results in high energy need Energy metabolism reaches a peak at this ageOverabundance of synapsesplasticity and synaptic pruning followsPlasticity declines as children agemore localizationLots of neural activity in prefrontal areasrelated to inhibition impulses attention working memory planning and organizing behaviourLeft hemisphere is especially active at 36 years then levels off o Language increases rapidlyRight hemisphere increases through early and middle childhood with slight spurt between 810 o Spatial skills develop gradually Handednesstho At 10 prenatal weekfetuses show right hand preference during thumb sucking o Dominant cerebral hemispherehandedness reflects the greater capacity of one side the brain to carry out skilled motor actionsOther important abilities also located o the dominant sideLeft handers have less lateralized brainso Twins more likely to have different hand preference because of opposite orientations in the uterusOther advances in brain development o Cerebellumat rear and base of the brain Aids in balance and control of body movementBy the end of preschool years children have well coordinated movementsConnections between cerebellum and cerebral cortex also support thinking o Reticular formationin brain stem and maintains alertness and consciousnessControl attentionSend fibres to other areas o Hippocampusinner brain structure plays a role in memory and images of space that help us find our wayEstablish connections to prefrontal cortex o Amygdalainner brain adjacent to hippocampus plays role in processing emotional informationSensitive to emotional expressions especially fearEnhances memory for important events o Corpus collosumlarge bundle of fibres connecting the two cerebral hemisphereSmooth coordination of movementsIntegrates thinking perception attention memory language and problem solving Influences on physical growth and healthLow level lead exposure and childrens development o Lead exposuredeficits in verbal and visualmotor skills distractibility over activity poor organization and behaviour problems antisocial behaviour o In poor SES consequences are greater for lead exposure Heredity and hormonesPituitary glands release 2 hormones that induce growth Located at base of the brain o Growth hormone GHNecessary from birth on for development of almost all body tissuesStimulates liver and epiphyasis to relwase another hormone called insulinlike growth factor 1 IGF1triggers cell duplications especially in skeleton muscles nerves bone marrow liver kidney skin lungs
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