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Final

Chapter 12 - Prejudice & Disliking Others very detailed lecture notes from Nov. 17th and 22nd. Includes explanations of all in-class examples, demonstrations, and video clips.

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 253
Professor
Emiko Yoshida
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 12 Prejudice and Disliking Others Economic Costs of Discrimination  Discrimination affects everyone, because it affects the economy  Economists estimated “a 50% increase in the gender wage-gap leads to a 25% drop in per capita income” (economic growth) & “loss of $137.5 billion because of discrimination in the U.S.  US army spent $250 million in one year to deal with sexual harassment problems  Economic advantages:  Increase productivity  Expand market  Educational advantages of diversity:  Acquire different perspectives  Deeper/more effective information processing Some Definitions  Prejudice – negative prejudgment about a group and its individual members  Prejudice often leads to discrimination  Discrimination – unjustifiable negative behaviour towards a group and its individual members  Prejudice and discrimination usually involves applying stereotypes  Stereotypes – beliefs about the personal attributes of group of people; overgeneralized, inaccurate and resistant to chagne  Clip – The Office  Amount of explicit prejudicial attitudes still exist, but have decreased ever since 1960 Subtle Forms of Prejudice and Discrimination  Prejudice has become more subtle in past years  Ex. female musicians have been underrepresented in prestigious jobs (ex. symphony orchestras); due to discrimination (when women audition behind a screen they are 50% more likely to be hired than if no screen)  Overweight women are paid 7% less than normal weight women  Racial minorities and helping behaviour – people are less likely to help black people compared to white people if they can see the ethnicity of the person Expression of Prejudice  Factors that affects expression fo prejudice  Anonymity  Values, ideologies, beliefs;  Ambiguity (presence of excuse) o Study – Snyder et al., 1979 o 2 screens showing a movie o 2 vacants seats in between 2 confederates (one with a metal brace) o 2 conditions 1. Screens play the same movie, if they avoid the confederate with metal brace they are obviously avoiding him 2. Screens play different movies, if they avoid the confederate with metal brace, Ps have an excuse; can say they want to watch the movie that the “normal” confederate is watching Chapter 12 o Hypothesis: when there is an excuse, participants will be more likely to avoid the confederate with a brace than when ther eis no excuse o Results: same movie – equally likely to sit beside either confederate (no excuse – no discrimination); different movie – more likely to sit beside the confederate with metal brace (excuse – discrimination) Target’s Perspectives Attributional Ambiguity  How does subtle prejudice and discrimination affect a target?  Attribute negative events to prejudice – protect self-esteem  Ex. crossing Canadian/American border – situation is ambiguous (is this discrimination?)  Study – Crocker et al., 1999 o 2 (visibility: blinds up vs. blinds down) x 2 (feedback: positive vs. negative) study o Black participants o Told that study is on same-sex friendship (process of making inter-racial friendships) o Told that “another (White) participant” is in the next room o Ps fill out a self-description form o One way mirror – Ps cannot see partner, but partner can see Ps (blinds up – told that the blinds would be raised vs. blinds down condition) o Wasn’t really a partner o Positive feedback condition – partners say that they would like to take the same course, work together, be roommates, etc. o Negative feedback condition – opposite of positive o DV 1: attribution – ex. “to what extent do you think that you are discriminated against by the other student?” o DV 2: self-esteem o Results:  Positive feedback: visible (blinds up) lower self-esteem than invisible (blinds down)  Negative feedback: invisible (blinds down) lower self-esteem, visible (blinds up) no real difference to self-esteem o When a “white partner” could see, Black Ps attributed negative feedback to racism – discounted both positive and negative feedback  protected self- esteem from negative feedback; did not increase self-esteem after receiving positive feedback  Clip – Seinfeld – Jerry asks Chinese mailman where the nearest Chinese food restaurant is, mailman gets very upset  Implications o White professors provide feedback to Black students  negative feedback will be discounted (due to racism); potentially useful criticism will be dismissed o How can a mentor provide feedback in a way to discourage attribution to racial bias?  Over-praising and under-challenging is not effective; Black students are sensitive to motivation underlying positive feedback (will usually discount positive feedback as well) Chapter 12  High performance standards & assurance works much better  refute negative stereotypes; attribute negative feedback to standard rather than to race; assure that Black students can succeed through effort Stereotype Threat  Racial difference on SAT – European American first, then Latino American, than African American  SATs test critical reading, math, and writing  Gender difference on SAT math scores – men do better than women (consistent over years) Mystery  Stable gender differences in math and science  However, these gender difference do no appear until 15-18 years old (highschool)  Before highschool, girls actually do better than boys in math and science courses  Gender differences in math are larger among those who are good at math  Why?  A Major Social Problem  Billions of dollars in lost wages, slowed economic growth  Lack of people in these fields  Common explanations 1. Group differences in intelligence (not true) 2. Cultural differences in valuing academic achievement (not valid) 3. Poverty and under-preperation for success – poor schools, poorly educated parents (not valid)  Gender and race differences still exist even when they attend the same universities, they take the same courses, they have the same standardized test scores when they entered the university, they have the same income level Stereotype Threat  Negative stereotypes  Ex. racial minorities in academic achievement, women in math and science  Clip – The Simpsons – “of course you got a few Bs in math, you are a girl after all”  These people worry about confirming negative stereotypes; results in extra pressure which interferes with performance  To cope with stereotype threat – people may disidentify with stereotyped domains (ex. change programs, etc.)  Study – Spencer et al., 1999  Male and female participants  Gender difference condition – Ps are told that there was a gender difference on this test  No gender difference condition – Ps are told that there wasn’t a gender difference on the test  DV: challenging math test performance  Results: o Gender difference condition – women underperform to men (men’s results are same in both conditions) o No gender difference condition – no difference between men/women’s performance Chapter 12 o Lowered performance of women in gender difference condition is an effect of stereotype threat  Implications o Stereotyped students perform as well as non-stereotyped students in safe conditions o Stereotype threat can explain the difference in gender achievement gap o Stereotype threat becomes stronger as people progress in educational system o Fewer female students take math courses (in end of highschool and university)  Gender becomes more salient  Negative stereotypes are more likely to come to mind o Materials become harder through educational system  More cognitive resources are necessary for studying  Negative stereotypes are mo
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