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Psych 257 Midterm 1.docx

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University of Waterloo
Heidi Engelhardt

Abnormal Behaviour in a Historical ContextChapter 1 Defining Psychological DisordersMany definitions have proposed over history yet none universally acceptedOngoing debate in the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology Common features of Definitions The Three Dsall three must be present 1 DysfunctionBreakdown in cognitive emotional or behavioural functioningHow do we know when someone has reached this point o Normal shyness vs social anxiety disorder o Dieting vs eating disorder o Adaptive checking vs OCDKnowing where to draw the line between normal and abnormal dysfunction is often difficultThese categories are often considered to exist on a continuum or as a dimension rather than as categories that are either present or absent 2 Personal Distress or Impairmentat least one of the two must apply a DistressFeeling upset about the problem BUT does this always applyDoesnt define abnormal behaviour by itselfSuffering and distressbig part of lifeSome disorderssuffering or distress are absent b ImpairmentInterfering with function Replaces distress when distress is not present in the disorder ex BipolarHas to be an extreme Ex So shy that you find it impossible to date or even interact with people you make every attempt to avoid interactions even though you would like to have friends then your SOCIAL FUNCTIONING is impaired 3 Deviant Atypical or Not Culturally Expected a Atypicaldeviates from the averageThe greater the deviations the more abnormal it isMay people are far from the average in their behaviour but few would be considered disorderedMay call them eccentriccelebrities and artists b Different from sociocultural normsEven if some people are sympathetic to your point of viewA social standrad of normal has been misused The DSM5 is what we use as diagnostic criteria ex Social Anxiety Disorder A and B are DysfunctionalC is DeviantAtypicalD and E are Distress or Impairment CAUTION Subjective Judgment AND SocioCultural Understanding Required to be able to diagnose these disorders under this criteriaTheories of Etiology Etiology and TreatmentEtiologyorigins causes of disorders o Supernaturalo Biological o Psychologicalo Social Over history theories about etiology inform treatment of mental illness and vice versa For example if a new drug or psychosocial treatment is successful in treating a disorder it may give us some hints about the nature of the disorder and its causesScientific TheoriesLogically consistent statements about some behavioural phenomenonBest summarizes and organizes existing empirical knowledgeProvides a tentative explanationServes as the basis for making predictionsCan inform treatment decisionsConsistentParsimoniousCorrectableEmpirically testablefalsifiableUsefulWarning can bias search for information to support theory o Can look for specific criteria for a specific disorder if they think that is what they haveConceptualizations and treatments of mental illness over history The Biological TraditionPhysical causes have been sought since early in history Hippocrates 460377 BCEEtiology o Biological imbalance of bodily fluids o Psychological and social influences too o Believed they may be associated with head trauma or brain pathology and could be influenced by geneticsTreatmento Change environmental conditions to restore balance in humors o Suggested that they could be treated like any other physical disease The Humoral Theory of DisordersAssumed that normal brain functioning was related to 4 bodily fluids or humors blood heart black bile spleen yellow bile liver and phlegm brainPhysicians believed that disease was a result of too much or too little of one of the bilesEx Too much black bile was thought to cause melancholia DepressionFour biles related to the Greeks conception of the four basic qualities heat dryness moisture and cold Excesses of one or more were treated by regulating the environment to increase or decrease heat dryness moisture or cold
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