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Psych 257 exam review.docx

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Allison Kelly

Psych 257 exam review Axis of mental disorders Axis I What we typically think of as diagnosis (eg. Depression, social phobia, schizophrenia) Axis II Developmental (typically evident in childhood; eg. Autism, mental retardation) & personality disorders (long lasting symptoms and encompass the indiv.’s way of interacting with world (paranoid, borderline, antisocial) Axis III Physical conditions such as brain injury, HIV/AIDS Axis IV Severity of psychological stressors Axis V Highest lvl of functioning  Describing and differentiating disorders based on symptoms and course  Defining and differentiating symptoms  Causal factors o Theories o Empirical research  Treatment and prognosis o Main treatments o Outcomes  Gilbert’s transdiagnostic model Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 1. Symptom classes of schizo Positive symptoms Negative symptoms Disorganized Actively showing signs Absence or insufficiency of normal Unpredictable behaviours that of abnormal behaviour affect speech, motor behaviour, excess or Avolition – a meaning without, volition behaviour, and emotions distortion of normal means an act of willing, choosing, Inappropriate affect behaviour deciding Disorganized behaviour Delusions – irrational - Avolition: little interesting in beliefs (bizarre vs. doing even the most basic day Catatonia - alternating non-bizarre) to day task like bathing between immobility and hallucinations – Alogia – absence of speech, excited agitation (rapid experience sensory uninterested in conversation movements) events without input - One or two words answers from surrounding Anhedonia – lack of pleasure Disorganized speech environment Effective flattening – lack of facial (auditory, visual, emotions, toneless, stare vacantly, tactile, somatic, Asociality - without social, lack of olfactory) motivation to socialize Types of delusions Nonbizarre: involving situations that occur in real life, eg: being followed, poisoned, infected, loved at distance (erotomanic), deceived) Bizarre: impossible, situations that can’t happen in real life (eg. Brain waves sending thoughts to other people) Usually bizarre Bizarre or non – bizarre Of guilt or sin Somatic - individual has physical defect or medical Of reference condition Of being controlled Persecutory – others are “out to get them” Grandiose - mistaken belief that the person is famous or powerful Erotomanic: someone in love with individual Jealous: partner is unfaithful Concept check: Jane has disorganized because mirror starring, childish behaviour (something hephic), speech problem Drew has schizophreniform, had an episode of schizo, no longer displays major symptoms Greg has delusions of persecution Alice has catatonic Cameron has disorganized or catatonic Natalie has schizoaffective, because of depressive episode, suicide notion Shawn has schizophreniform Elias has deux a folie, or shared psychotic disorder 2. DSM criteria and subtypes 2 or more of following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1 month period:  Delusions  Hallucinations  Disorganized speech  Disorganized or catatonic behaviour (catatonic – alternating between immobile and rapid movements, disorganized – unpredictable behaviours affecting emotions, speech and motor behaviour)  Negative symptoms (absence of normal behaviours) Five Subtypes of schizophrenia 1. Paranoid – delusions of grandeur or persecution (these people do not have disorganized speech or flat effect, better prognosis) 2. Catatonic – alternate immobility and excited agitation a. echolalia –mimic/repeat words , b. echopraxia – mimic/repeat movements 3. Disorganized – used to be called hebephrenic; silly and immature emotionality (disruption in speech and behaviour, flat effect, laughing at the wrong time, self – absorbed, look at themselves in the mirror) 4. Undifferentiated – people who does not meet criteria for paranoid, disorganized or catatonic subtypes 5. Residual - suffered at least 1 episode of schizophrenia but no longer showing major symptoms, might suffer from delusions or hallucinations 3. Other psychotic disorders o Schizophreniform – less than 1 year, few months of schizophrenia and resume to normal o Schizoaffective – major depressive episode, a manic episode, mixed episode concurrent with symptoms that meet criterion for schizophrenia Treatment, medication, prognoses - Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication - Transcranial magnetic stimulation Developmental disorders (Axis II) 1. ADHD Clusters of symptoms: to be diagnose with ADHD, must have at least one of two clusters of symptoms a. Inattention - appears not listening to others, lack of attention to details, careless mistakes b. Hyperactivity – fidgeting, trouble sitting still, always on the go c. impulsivity – blurting things out, trouble waiting for turns DSM – IV for ADHD: 6 or more of symptoms listed for inattentive, or hyperactivity/ impulsivity Treatment: Ritalin is a stimulant Etiology: Evolutionary factors  Hunter vs. farmer hypothesis (Hartmann) Learning disorders Dyslexia – difficulty decoding single words, related to reading disorder Learning disabilities have the highest percentages of schoolchildren diagnosed in the wealthiest states in U.S. eg. Alaska, Hawaii, Selective mutism – persistent failure at speaking in specific situations, such as school, despite ability to do so (Tourrette) Tic disorders – involuntary motor movements such as head twitching, vocalizations, grunts, often occur in rapid succession, comes suddenly, etc Concept check Cole has ADHD, specifically impulsivity Miley has selective mutism, cannot talk at school but can at home Jonathan has attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity. (he’s inattentive) Trent has Tourette or tic disorder Kelly has reading disorder Chandra has ADHD, hyperactivity and compulsivity Pervasive developmental disorders  People with Pervasive developmental disorders all have problems with language & communication, socialization, and cognition (behaviour). Autistic disorders  Significant impairment in social interactions and communication, restricted patterns of behaviour, interest and activities. o Restricted patterns of B, I, and A means extremely upset if small change was made to their environment, called maintenance of sameness. Doing stereotyped and ritualistic behaviours such as biting their hands,
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