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Definitions: Chapters 1-5 All bolded words and their definitions from chapters one through five that will be on the midterm.

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Uzma Rehman

Definitions January-05-11 10:45 AM Psychological disorder Psychological dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected. Phobia Disorder characterized by persistent fear of an object or situation Psychopathology Scientific study of psychological disorders Scientist-practitioner Mental health professionals who take a scientific approach to their work Presenting problem The original complaint from the client to the therapist; why the person came to the clinic Clinical description The combination of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make up a specific disorder. Prevalence How many people in the population have this disorder Incidence How many new cases occur during a given period Course Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time Prognosis Anticipated course of a disorder Etiology Study of origins Psychosocial approach Social and cultural factors as well as psychological influences Moral therapy 19th century psychosocial approach to treatment, that involves treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments Mental hygiene 19th century effort to improve care for mentally disordered by informing movement public about their mistreatment. Put forward by Dorothea Dix Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy that emphasized insight and exploration into unconscious processes and conflicts Behaviourism Explanation of human behaviour, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology Unconscious Make of psychic makeup outside of conscious awareness Catharsis Therapeutic release of emotional tension Psychoanalytic model Comprehensive theory advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for development and structure of personality as well as origins of abnormal behaviour, based on inner entities and forces Id Operates on the pleasure principle, controls basic sexual and aggressive urges. Intrapsychic conflict Struggles among id, ego and superego Defence mechanism Unconscious protective processes that keep primitive emotions associated with conflict in check so the ego can continue to function Psychosexual stages of Sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each development stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at that time Neuroses Obsolete psychodynamic term used for psychological disorders thought to result from unconscious conflicts and the anxiety they caused. Ego psychology Emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to the failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts Object relations Modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of children incorporate memories and values of people who are close and important to them. Free association Psychoanalytic therapy process where a patient says whatever comes to mind without censoring in an attempt to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious Dream analysis Psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of the id's impulses and intrapsychic conflicts Psychoanalyst Therapist who practices psychoanalysis Transference Psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients make seek to relate to the therapist as they do to other important figures in their lives, namely parents. Psychodynamic Contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious psychotherapy processes and conflicts but is briefer and focuses more on specific issues. Self actualizing Process in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences. Person centered therapy Therapy method in which the client directs the course of discussion, seeking self responsibility and self discovery Unconditional positive Acceptance by the therapist of the client's feelings and actions without regard judgement Classical conditioning Type of learning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits that response Extinction When the conditioned response decreases because the reinforcement is removed Introspection Clients report on their feelings and inner thoughts in response to a stimuliSystematic Gradual exposure to feared stimuli paired with a positive coping desensitization experience, usually relaxation. Behavioural therapy therapy methods based on principles of behaviour and cognitive science as well as principles of learning, considers specific behaviours as targets for change Reinforcement In operant conditioning, a consequence that strengthens a behaviour Shaping Reinforcing successive approximations to a final behaviour or set of behaviours Multidimensional Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds that psychological integrative approach disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors Genes Long DNA molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes Diathesis stress model Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder Vulnerability Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder Reciprocal gene- Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also environment model have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors t
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