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PSYCH257 CH1-5 Summaries for Midterm 1

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University of Waterloo
Shannon Hartling

PSYCH257 – CH. 1-5 NOTES CHAPTER 1 The Models: The Supernatural Model The Biological Model  Hippocrates  father of modern medicine  Galen  developed humoral theory of disorders: bodily functions, blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm = imbalance  Somatoform disorders  women uterus disorder  19 century of syphilis (John Grey)  delusions treated as physical illness (but failed)  insulin shock therapy: stimulate appetite  dangerous & left pts in coma/dead  Meduna  tried to cure schizophrenia with induced brain seizures (similar to present day electroconvulsive therapy)  Neuroleptics: tranquilizer to diminish hallucinations/delusional thoughts  Benzodiazapines: minor tranquilizer to reduce anxiety Psychological Model  Plato  social/cultural influences cause maladaptive behaviour  Aristotle  influence of social environment & early training th  Moral therapy: 19 century approach to treat pts normally in normal environments o Moral = emotional/psychological  nurture relationship o Failed due to overpopulation of mental institutions Psychoanalytic Model  Psychoanalysis: exploration/insight to unconscious processes & conflicts  by Sigmund Freud  Psychoanalytic theory: o Anton Mesmer  hypnosis (mesmerism) had pt express unconscious emotions o Catharsis: recalling/reliving emotional trauma for therapeutic reasons o Functions of personality clashing together, can have early stages of psychosexual development  Id (pleasure principle), Ego (reality principle), Superego (moral principles – conscience) clashing = intrapsychic conflict o Defense mechanism to relieve anxiety  Unconscious protection so ego can function properly  Denial (acknowledge refusal), Displacement (transfer feelings), Projection (attribute feelings to another), Rationalization (reassuring self), Repression (block disturbing wishes), Sublimation (direct maladaptive feelings to behavior) o Psychosexual development stages: id gratification at maximum  Phallic stage (children sexually attracted to parent), Castration anxiety (remove penis bc of lust)  Theory’s flaw = not scientific or testable Behavioural Model  Key idea: disorders in adulthood come from learning  Behaviourism: explanation of behaviour based on learning/adaption principles  Context & environment = more important  Classical conditioning – Pavlov o Neutral stimulus paired with response to gain condition response o Unconditioned response, unconditioned stimulus, neutral stimulus, conditioned response o Conditioned response can show signs of extinction  Issues: two individuals in same external situation will most likely act differently  not develop same disorder  Most effective for treating anxiety disorders  systematic desensitization (increase exposure to threatening stimili) Cognitive Model  Key idea: disorders in adulthood come from conscious thoughts  Differences = interpretation of events by individuals o Beck’s Level of content:  Surface thoughts (least stable), Spontaneous automatic thoughts, Underlying Schemas (most stable)  Therapy = restructuring inaccurate interpretations to become accurate  Effective bc it’s instructive  Issues: not effective for all clients Humanistic Theory  Positive, optimistic side of human nature  Self actualizing: reaching highest potential in functioning  Abraham Maslow  hierarchy of needs  Carl Rogers  person centered therapy (client direction course) CHAPTER 2: Integrative Approach to Psychopathology One Dimensional & Multidimensional Models  One Dimensional: trace origins of behavior to single cause (Eg. Galen’s bio model)  Multidimensional: abnormal behaviour results from multiple influences (more accuate) o Context: biological, behavioural, cognitive, emotional, social, cultural environment are affecting components and also affect e/o  Influencing factors: o Behaviour (learned reactions), Biological (genetics, physiology), Emotional (regulation), Social (support, loneliness), Cultural (environment grown up in), Developmental (passage of time) Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology  Ordering of chromosome pairs determine how body develops/works  50% personality traits/cognitive abilities are from genetics  Mutation of chromosomes may result in mental retardation  Eric Kandel  suggest genetic cells influence learning  Diathesis-Stress Model: inherit multiple genes that get activated at different conditions of stress  vulnerability = tendency to develop a disorder  Reciprocal Gene Environment Model: genetic tendency to create environmental risk to promote disorder development Cultural, Social, Interpersonal Factors  Fright disorder: exaggerated startle responses  insomnia, irritability, phobias  Factors: o Gender: gender roles and rates of mood disorder o Social Effects on Health/Behaviour: more social contacts = live longer o Influences on the Elderly: age differ thru expression o Stigma: makes it hard for people to seek help o Interpersonal Psychotherapy: resolve interpersonal problems and stress o Global Incidence: mental/behavioural problems developed due to political conflict Life Span Development  Can’t just look at disorders from one time in person’s life  developmental changes happen in life stages  Age onset defines disorder  Principle of Equifinality: developmental psychopathology principles that says disorder may have many causes  result from psychological & biological factors that interact in different stages of life CHAPTER 3: Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, & Research in Psychopathology Assessing Psychological Disorders What are clinical assessment & Diagnosis?  Clinical Assessment: systematic evaluation/measurement of psychological, biological, social factors in individual that may have disorder  Diagnosis: process of determining the factors meeting all criteria for specific disorder  Im
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