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Midterm Essay Questions Definitions that will be on the midterm and all answers to the short answer questions on the midterm.

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John Holmes

Potential Essay Questions Logical Positivism:  Negative reaction to “all in the head” and untestable theories whose concepts cannot be reliably measured, must have operations o Operationalize and definitions  Replicable/ repetitive  Testable  Falsifiable Modern mechanism models in scientific psychology:  Cognitive-Affective Personality System- CAPS Model.  There is something between stimulus and response (S & R)  Objective qualities of situationsituation as construedbehaviours  Anything that looks at the stimulus and response and how it is measured Behaviorist tradition  B.F. Skinner: rejected introspection and studied: consequences shape behaviour  Observable behaviour Vividness effects  Vivid exp overwhelms any abstract knowledge  Human mind is not designed to think in terms of probabilities/statistics: statistical baseline (what happens on average)  People hate being categorized  colorful exp overwhelms knowledge Third variable problem  Problem with correlations o Third variable arises because things in the world are related  must pry apart these naturally occurring relationships  Third variable: Causal variable that makes both variables to increase/decrease Logic of detecting a spurious association  Third variable makes 2 associations spurious o Spurious: no correlation  Higher correlation with AC,BC rather than AB Dealing with the bi-directionality problem  2 variables w arrow going both ways  can’t have temporal precedence you don’t’ know if a causes b or b causes a  Systematic measurement error  Affects validity  Systematic errors are biases in measurement which lead to the situation where the mean of many separate measurements differs significantly from the actual value of the measured attribute  o Response biases (e.g. desirability) o Method variance (e.g. why are you so shy vs, putting room to meet ppl) o Diagnostic (context) e.g. sampling shyness  “when you’re at a party, do you tend to dance on a table when midnight approaches?”  think: to measure shyness you need to know when shyness shows itself - revealing shyness Reasons for poor inter-observer agreement  small number of judges and not enough to cancel out errors  dissimilar threats : different belief observers have on the concept are inconsistent  imprecise broad coding schemes – definitions of what they are looking for isn’t clear o test-retest reliability: give the same readings virtually  Reasons for high internal consistency reliability  bicycles – I like to ride bicycles  asking a large number of questions and getting the same results within that testing method  same theme Discriminant validity  Divergent or Discriminant validity:  when you measure 2 different things they shouldn’t go together o if they go together then why have 2 concepts?  Problem: everyone wants to have their own concept but under the same umbrella  Measures of conceptually distinct concepts should not relate strongly  Problems of shared method variance vs. actual similarity  Eg., Self-esteem, social anxiety and shyness  Proliferation of personality scales: An industry  Predictive validity  Measuring something to predict outcomes  the ability to predict something with a valid basis o gre/lsat and future successes opsychological vulnerability and later depression Two five-point questions or one 10-point question will be drawn from Dr. Wood’s lectures. 1. A researcher has the hypothesis that men’s semen prevents depression in their female sexual partners (this is a true story; research was described in the Globe and Mail in 2001). He compares women whose sexual partners use condoms with women whose partners do not, and finds that those whose partners use condoms are more depressed than those whose partners do not. He concludes that semen does indeed prevent depression. (5 points) Identify a plausible threat to internal validity in this case. Name the threat (i.e., use a name we covered in class, such as “regression to the mean”) and explain how the threat would have worked specifically in this study. rd  3 variable  sexual pleasure (uniqueness)  The threat of sexual pleasure is plausible and could be a causing variable to the female’s depressive or non depressive state, instead of semen  Female sex partners could be dissatisfied when using a condom because it reduces sexual pleasure and lower level of sexual pleasure leads to overall physiological state, which can lead to a depressive state.  Sexual Pleasure prevents depression instead of semen. 2. An educator is interested in eradicating “fear of math” in female school children. She believes that if girls view arithmetic as an enjoyable activity, their competence in arithmetic will improve. She creates a new computer-guided self- instructional arithmetic program modeled after video games and installs it in the school computer room and library. Students can use it whenever they have free time. Four weeks later, the researcher administers a test of arithmetic competence. She compares 25 Grade 5 girls who have used the new program to 25 Grade 5 girls who have not, and finds that those who have used her program perform better on the arithmetic test. (5 points) Identify a threat to in
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