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PSYCH 338 Textbook Summary [Full Course] File contains concise, easy-to-read summaries of assigned textbook readings. Readings arranged chronologically by when they were assigned for ease of use; organized by chapter for increased readability.

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University of Waterloo
Doug Brown

Chapter 1Organizations Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change Certain behaviours are necessary for survival and adaption people have to o Be motivated to join and remain in the organization o Carry out their basic work reliably in terms of productivity quality and service o Be willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills and o Be flexible and innovative The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork Organizational Behaviour The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations Those who study organizational behaviour are interested in attitudeshow satisfied people are with their jobs how committed they feel to the goals of the organization or how supportive they are of promoting women or minorities into management positions Why study organizational behaviour o Organizational Behaviour is interesting o Organizational Behaviour is important o Organizational Behaviour makes a difference Management The art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others The goals of organizational behaviour o Predicting organizational behaviour o Explaining organizational behaviourPrediction and explanation are not synonymous Ancient societies were capable of predicting the regular setting of the sun but were unable to explain where it went or why it went there o Managing organizational behaviour Classical Viewpoint An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision making Under the classical viewpoint each department was to tend to its own affairs with centralized decision making from upper management providing coordination To maintain control the classical view suggested that managers have fairly few workers except for lowerlevel jobs where machine pacing might substitute for close supervision Scientific Management Frederick Taylors system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks Rather than informal rules of thumb for job design Taylors Scientific Management advocated the use of careful research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization Also he supported the development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures and he encouraged supervisors to standardize workers movements and breaks for maximum efficiency Taylor even extended Scientific Management to the supervisors job advocating functional foremanship whereby supervisors would specialize in particular functions For example one might become a specialist in training workers while another might fulfill the role of a disciplinarian Bureaucracy Max Webbers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command detailed rules high specialization centralized power and selection and promotion based on technical competence During Webers lifetime managers were certainly in need of advice In this time of industrial growth and development most management was done by intuition and nepotism and favouritism were rampant According to Webber a bureaucracy has the following characteristics o A strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single superior o Criteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills rather than nepotism or favouritism o A set of detailed rules regulations and procedures ensuring that the job gets done regardless of who the specific worker is o The use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competence o The centralization of power at the top of the organization Hawthorn Studies Research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment The Human Relations movement generally began with the Hawthorn Studies The studies were concerned with the impact of fatigue rest pauses and lighting on productivity However during the course of the studies the researchers began to notice the effects of psychological and social processes on productivity and work adjustment This impact suggested that there could be dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized One obvious sign was resistance to management through strong informal group mechanisms such as norms that limited productivity to less than what management wanted Human Relations Movement A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented towards employee needs The Human Relations Movements critique of the Bureaucracy model addressed several specific problems o Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement This can lead to employee alienation from the organization and its clients o Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fail to take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lowerlevel members who are often closer to the customer o Strict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level of performance that the rules specify o Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization Contingency Approach An approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation Canadian management theorist Henry Mintzberg discovered that managers play a number of complex roles o Interpersonal RolesFigurehead Symbols of their organizationLeader Select mentor reward and discipline employeesLiaison Maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization o Informational RolesMonitor Scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep themselves informed of new ideas and trendsDisseminator Send information on both facts and preferences to othersSpokesperson Sending messages into the organizations external environment o Decisional RolesEntrepreneur Managers turn problems and opportunities into plans for improved changes
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