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PSYCH 101 Lecture Notes [Full Course] File contains concise, accurate summary of lecture notes taken during the course. Arranged chronologically by date for ease of use. Contains notes from the entire semester.

Course Code
Steve Spencer
Study Guide

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September 11th 2008
Three Beginning of Psychology
- Psychiatric Freud and psychoanalysis
- Testing Galton, Binet and intelligence testing
- Academic Wundt, James, Watso, Gestalt laboratory psychology
Major Theorists
- Freud: Started as a medical doctor (neurologist), he did not do very well in medical school. One
of his early experiences with psychology was hypnosis (“the talking cure”). Sex, aggression or
both were the motivators behind everything according to Freud.
- Jung: Was attracted to psychology by Freud and was set to be Freud’s successor. However he
developed an alternate system and fell out of Freud’s good graces.
- Adler: Thought that everything was about power, he joined Jung and both of them were
expelled from Freud’s organization. Freud did not like Adler very much.
- Ego Psychologists were the second generation of psychology, they brought together and unified
psychologists. They also helped to get Psychology into medical schools. Erikson, Horney and Sullivan
were all members of this group.
Major Assumptions
- You cannot rely on what people say or do to indicate problems.
- Much of mental life is unconscious.
- Must understand people comprehensively as a dynamic whole (doctors write up case studies on
their patients).
- Can’t understand just one part of an individual.
- The best approach is a clinical approach.
- More is learned by studying people who are sick.
Testing Tradition
Major Theorists

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- Galton: Believed the upper class were superior, believed that upper class was further evolved
than the lower class. He associated physicality to intelligence.
- Spearman: Created the coalition co-ordination.
- Caltel: Wanted to know what made up people’s personalities, he discovered extroverts and
- Eysenck: Move that theory ahead and added a third class, psychotics.
- Binet: Had no upper class snobbery, he wanted to know which students would do well next
year. He decided to give students advanced questions to find out and discovered the first
intelligence test. Said IQ was mental age over physical age. IQ test began to be used to effect
immigration, policy, etc.
Major Assumptions
- Psychology is primarily a product of biology.
o Emphasis on nature over nurture and evolution.
- There are only a few ways that people differ.
o A small number of traits can explain the difference between people.
- People’s traits can be understood through simple tests.
Academic Tradition
Major Theorists
- Wundt: Atomism, he tried breaking thoughts down into smaller and smaller units.
- James: Pragmatism, studied with Wundt and set up the first psychology lab in North America at
Harvard. He realized that psychology had to touch daily lives in order to turn heads.
- Watson, Skinner: Behaviorism, cannot study the unobservable (thoughts).
- Lewin: Gestalt said it was wrong to break things down into parts.
Major Assumptions
- Psychology is best understood when causes are understood.
- The why in some cases is more important than the how/when.

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- People’s thoughts and actions can be understood.
- By observing people we can understand them.
- Systematic study produces the fullest understanding.
- Set-up labs and experiments.
Three New Beginnings of Psychology
- Psychiatric tradition
o Humanistic approach, this included Mazlo.
- Trait tradition
o Development of the Big 5 approach of personality (OCEAN)
- Academic tradition
o Cognitive revolution, behaviorist approach too narrow, must include thoughts.
Research methodology Best Philosophy of Science
- Our ideas can often be wrong.
- We set out to demonstrate they can be wrong.
- When we cannot prove them wrong we accept them for now.
- We may well prove them wrong later.
- What is accepted is influenced by what is popular.
- What is accepted is shaped by political forces and has political impact.
Ways of Doing Research
- Tension between discovery and explanation.
- Case study Anna O. (Freud first case study).
- Naturalistic observation (Jane Goodall’s research with Chimps).
- Survey.
September 16th 2008
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