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Midterm

Midterm 1 Summary Notes for Modules Covered up-to-Date These are the summary notes for all the modules that will be covered on the midterm on October 26, 2010. It basically summarizes each module and includes defitnitions. Easy to follow and understand :)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Study Guide
Midterm

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Modules: 1-3, 4-6, 8-10, 11, 13-15, 18, 20-22, 23-25
Module 1
- Willhelm Wudnt wouldn’t establish the first psychological laboratory in 1879
- Structuralism: the school of psychology that means you have to use what you have in your brain
to understand the mind (introspection: looking inwards)
- Functionalism: psychology uses how our mental and behavioural processes function and how
they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish
- Behaviourism: the view that psychology should be an objective science studies behaviour
without reference to mental processes
- Humanist Psychology: healthy people can personally grow emphasizes growth potential of
healthy people. The individual’s potential for personal growth
- Cognitive neuroscience: study of the brain activity linked with cognition (perception and
thinking)
- Psychology: the science of behaviour and mental processes
- Nature/Nurture: nature is how you’re born (genes) and nurture is how you are brought up
- Natural selection: the range of inherited traits only some are selected that are passed down to
another generation ones related to survival and reproduction
- Levels of analysis: different views (biological, psychological, sociocultural)
- Bio psychosocial approach: use different levels of analysis
- Basic research: increase your knowledge
- Applied research: aims to solve practical problems
- Counselling psychology: assist people with problems in living and in achieving greater well being
- Clinical Psychology: studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders
- Psychiatry:
- SQ3R: study method (survey, question, read, rehearse, review
Module 2
Thinking critically with psychological science
- Intuition is wrong one must consider factors that contribute to intuition
- Hindsight bias: tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it (I
knew it all along)
- Hindsight bias and over confidence to overestimate our intuition scientific inquiry can help us
differentiate
- Scientific attitude
o A curious eagerness
o Sceptically scrutinized competing ideas
o Open minded humility

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Modules: 1-3, 4-6, 8-10, 11, 13-15, 18, 20-22, 23-25
- Critical thinking: smart thinking examines assumptions, recognize hidden values and assess
outcomes
- Attitudes and behaviours vary across cultures and underlying principles vary less
- More similarities in gender than differences
- Animals
o Some psychologists are interested in animal behaviour
o Some are interested in understanding the physiological and psychological differences
between animals and humans
o Animals in experiments rarely experience pain
- People
o Researchers temporarily stress or deceive people to learn something important
o Professional ethical standards provide guidelines concerning treatment of both human
and animal participants
- Psychologists values influence their choice of research topics
Module 3
- Research strategies: how psychologists ask and answer questions
- Theory : an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organize observations and
predicts behaviours or events
- Hypothesis: testable prediction often implied by a theory
- Scientific method: a self-correcting method for asking questions and observing natures answers
Theories
Hypothesis
Research and Observations
Operational Definitions
- A statement of procedures used to define research variables
- Example: generosity ( survey about generosity, generosity would mean money contributed)
- Replication: repeats the essence of the study usually with different participants in different
situations to see whether the basic findings extend to other participants and circumstances
- A theory will be useful if
1. Effectively organizes a range of self-reports and observations
2. Implies clear predications
Case Study
- An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing
universal principles
Survey

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Modules: 1-3, 4-6, 8-10, 11, 13-15, 18, 20-22, 23-25
- Looks at many cases in less depth
- It questions a representative random sample of a group
- Wording effects: the way you word a question can affect the answer you receive from it
- Random sampling is a must to ensure accurate results
- Random sample : fairly represents a population because each member because each member
has an equal chance of being selected
- Population: all the cases in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn
Naturalistic Observation
- Observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to
manipulate and control the situation
Correlation
- A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how either factor
predicts the other
- Correlation coefficient: a statistical index of the relationship between two things (always from
+1 to -1)
- Scatter plots: graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables
o Slope means direction (positive/negative)
o Amount of scatter has to do with strength
Correlation and Causation
- Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause and effect relationship does not prove causation
(a relation between the factors)
- Illusory Correlation: the perception of a relationship where none exists (could be due to only
remembering random coincidences one does not remember no coincidences)
- Perceiving order in random events: every random event has some order however it is not a
pattern people try to convince themselves that a correlation exist when it does not
- Experimentation: enable researchers to
1. Manipulate factors of interest
2. Hold constant other controlling factors
Random assignment
- Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing pre-
existing differences
- An experience manipulates a factor to determine its effect
- Double declined procedure: an experimental procedure in which both the research participants
and the research staff are blind of which group has a drug and a placebo
- Placebo effect: results caused by expectations alone
- Control group: group that is not exposed to the treatment
- Independent variable: the variable whose effect is being studied
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