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Midterm #1 Review These notes cover the first four weeks of the course, which include: history & scope research methods neural systems the brain motivation & hunger big brain sensation & perception vision visual perception classical conditionin

Course Code
Colin Mac Leod
Study Guide

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Psych 101
Colin Macleod
Tuesday, September 14, 2010
What is Psychology?
The science of behaviour and mental processes
Why Psychology Matters?
o Problems exist that are truly psychological, and that rest on psychological
diagnoses and respond to psychological treatments.
o As a science, psychology provides for understanding, diagnosing, and
changing behaviour, whether problem behaviour (autism) or “normal”
behaviour (shyness).
Why Psychology Matters:
o Birth
o Growing…
o Ordering
o Repetitive Behaviours: such as, stacking, lining up, which are effects of
children with Autism. They also have routines.
What is Autism?
Autism and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are lifelong neurodevelopmental
disorders affecting sociability and communication for which no aetiology based
treatment has yet been developed.
o More prevalent in males (80%)
o There are no “quick fixes” to autism.
o Parent(s) may go into a depression
o Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence to proof that autism is on the
Characterizing Autism:
o Brain development disorder
o Impairs social interaction and communication
o Causes restricted and repetitive behaviour
o Prevalence of one to two cases per 1000 people, about 6 per 1000 for ASD= 1
in ever 150-250 people.
o It is not visible unlike Down syndrome’s.
The Disabilities
A developmental and behavioural pattern: “The Triad of Impairments”
o Problems with social interaction
o Problems with social communication
o Imaginative

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Autism Spectrum Disorder:
I. Autistic Disorder
II. Asperger’s Disorder
III. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
IV. Rett’s Disorder
V. Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Characterizing Asperger’s:
o Normal intelligence and language development but lack of social awareness
and deficiencies in communication skills
o Often perform well on school tests, but are awkward or inappropriate
o Don’t know how to interpret social signs sent by others
o Often seen as eccentric or odd and hence at risk of being bullied or teased
relentlessly by peers
Some Possible Signs of ASD:
o Does not babble, point or make meaningful gestures by 1 year of age
o Does not speak one word by 16 months
o Does not combine two words by 2 years
o Does not respond to name
o Appears to be unaware when people address him/her but responds to other
o Avoids eye contact
o Does not smile
More Possible Signs of ASD:
o Wants to be alone
o Does not seem to know how to play with toys
o Excessively lines up toys or other objects
o Does not point at objects to show interest
o Does not look at objects when another person points at them
o Has unusual reactions to the way things smell, taste, look feel or sound
Genetic Transmission:
o Children with a family history of autism have a somewhat higher risk for
developing ASD than children with no family history.

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Significant People:
Leo Kanner (1896-1981)
o First description of “early infantile autism” in 1943.
o Defined most of the crucial symptoms that are witnessed today.
Hans Asperger (1906-1980)
o First description of characteristics in 1944
o First called “Asperger’s Syndrome” in 1981
o First recognized as a legitimate diagnosis in 1994 (DSM IV)
O. Ivaar Lovaas
o First reported major advances using Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) in
1987 (studies ongoing since the 60’s)
o Now the major treatment technique for autism (ABA) also known as
Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI)
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