Midterm 1 Study Guide Notes for the Psych 101 Midterm 1 - covers 15 modules of the Psych 101 textbook, as well as lectures notes

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16 Oct 2011

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Psychology Notes
Lecture Notes One
Why psychology matters:
Cognitive psychology - decision making
Big decisions often made emotionally
Human being are good at learning - major part of the course
Sleep - sleep deprivation, dreaming
Childhood development - developmental psychology - growth
Language - speech development
Autism treatment is psychological - there is no medical treatment
1 or two cases per 1000 people are autistic, 6 per 1000 with ASD, 80% boys
Leo Kanner came up with the first description of early infantile autism
Autism and autistic spectrum disorders are lifelong neurodevelopment disorders
affecting sociability and communication for which no medical treatments exist
Children are often in motion, repetitive behaviours, ordering, hand flapping
A brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication, and
causes restricted and repetitive behaviours
Not visible
A developmental and behavioural patter: the triad of impairments
Social interaction, social communication, imagination or generalization
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Spectrum: autistic disorder, aspergers disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, retts
disorder, pervasive developmental disorder: not otherwise specified
Aspergers - normal intelligence and language development but lack of social awareness
and deficiencies in communication skills
Often perform well on school tests, but are awkward or inappropriate socially
Don't know how to interpret social signs sent by others, body language
Often seen as eccentric or odd, and hence at risk of being bullied by peers
Does not babble, point or make meaningful gestures by one year of age
Do not speak one word by sixteen months
Does not combine two words by two years
Does not respond to name
Appears to be unaware when people address him/her but responds to other sounds
Avoids eye contact
Does not smile
Wants to be alone
Does not seem to know how to play with toys
Excessively lines up toys or other objects
Does not point or look at objects to show interest
Unusual reactions to the way things smell, taste, look feel or sound
Children with a family history of autism are more likely to get it
Treatment: intensive behavioural intervention (applied behaviour analysis)
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Clinical psychology, cultural social psychology
Difficulties exist in order to be overcome - Alfred Adler, psychologist
Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes
Structuralism: an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the
structural elements of the human mind; required smart, verbal people - proved to be
somewhat unreliable - its results varied from person to person and between each
experience. As well, we sometimes don’t know why we feel what we feel and do what
we do
Functionalism: a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral
processes function - how the enable us to adapt, survive and flourish; adaptive -
consciousness serves a function - enables to consider our past, adjust to our present
circumstances and plan our future
Psychology as we know it began in 1879, in Germany’s University of Leipzig. The first
psychological experiment was led by Prof. Wilhelm Wundt
Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science, that (2)
studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists
today agree with (1) but not (2)
The scientific study of observable behavior
Humanistic Psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth
potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growth
environmental circumstances, need for love and acceptance
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