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Midterm

PSYCH101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Rorschach Test, Thematic Apperception Test, Carl Jung


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Education Distance
Study Guide
Midterm

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Module Summaries
******** Unit 1 ********
Module 1: Introduction, History, Research Methods
Behavioural Neuroscience: facial feature readings, relating neural systems with behaviour
Developmental: studies physical, cognitive and social life from birth to death
Cognitive: how to process info, encode info, store info, memory, language, problem solving
Clinical: studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders, experiments
Social: how we think about, influence and relate to one another, different settings, cultures
Psychology: what people think; how we feel about things; emotion/behaviour
Psychiatric Tradition
Everything is done subconsciously; can’t rely on what people say or do to identify their problem.
Emphasis is on all detail about person; takes several years.
Clinical approach; Learn about people who are sick.
Freud: two primary motives: sex & aggression
- Unconscious behaviour
- Inner mental life that is complex/devious
- Started psychiatric tradition
- Oedipus Complex: boys want to have sex with mom but realize they can’t so they live
through father; doesn’t explain women development
Carl Jung: unconscious is powerful influence
- Collective unconscious: shared; inherited reservoir of memory traces from out species’
history
- Interpretation of World
Adler & Horney: wanted power; concern for self-esteem
- Agreed with Freud that childhood is important
- Social NOT sexual
Carl Rogers: people are basically good, just let them get to know themselves
- Reflected back on how people felt
- Growth required: genuiness, acceptance and empathy

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Module Summaries
Testing Tradition
Psych is product of biology; nature VS nurture & evolution
Only small # of traits can explain difference in humans
People’s traits can be understood through simple tests and questionnaires
Francis Galton: wanted to know how to make someone a genious/superior
- Smartest = Strongest
- Naive study about how people are most likely to survive
Cattel & Eysenek: trait tradition
- Two major components to personality:
Introversion: shy
Extroversion: not shy
Binet: first intelligent test
- Based on topics in school & age level
Academic Tradition
Psych is best understood when causes are understood; what causes behaviour?
Why? Not how or when
People’s thoughts and actions can be understood by observations
Systematic study produces fullest understanding through labs and experiments
William Wundt: Reaction tests
- Thought thoughts could be divided into ‘mental atoms’
- Developed first psych labs/developed scientific approach
William James: brought psych to North America
- Wrote first psychology textbook
- Functionalism: school of psych that focused on how mental and behavioural processes
functioned how they enable organism to adapt/survive/flourish
Watson & Skinner: developed behaviourism
- “psych is study of behaviour”
- Thoughts shouldn’t be studied

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Module Summaries
Albert Bandura: observational learning
Trait Tradition
Openness = Intelligence
- More flexible
Conscientiousness
- People who stick to their goals/work hard to get things done
Extroversion
- Shy?
Agreeableness
- How pos/neg you are
Neuroticism
- Tendency to experience negative emotional states
Humanistic Perspective
Studied how healthy people strive for self-determination and self-realization
Abraham Maslow: motivated by hierarchy of needs
- Process of fulfilling potential: Physiological > personal safety > love > self-esteem > self-
actualization
Research Methods
1. Case Study: someone is studied in depth
2. Naturalistic Observation: involves watching and recording behaviour of subject in natural
environment; doesn’t explain ... it describes
3. Survey Research: surveying population using handful (representative population)
4. Experiments: try and establish causations; can manipulate factors of interest
Causation: establish which pattern is right; does A cause B or does B cause A?
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