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Lecture 6 - Intelligence and IQ The History of Testing Francis Galton (1822-1911) and Eugenics Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and the Intelligence Test Charles Spearman (1863-1945) and the Two-Factor Theory William Stern (1871-1938) and I."Q." Lewis

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Richard Ennis
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Lecture Outline
The History of Testing
Francis Galton (1822-1911) and Eugenics
Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and the Intelligence
Charles Spearman (1863-1945) and the Two-
Factor Theory
William Stern (1871-1938) and I."Q."
Lewis Terman (1877-1956) and the Dark
David Wechsler (1900-1996) and the Return
to Binet
Modern Uses of Intelligence Testing
Ironies of I.Q. Testing

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Still debate among experts about what intelligence is
o Reflected in a way to attempt to measure it
IQ = Intelligence Quotient
Academic Achievement
Lifetime Earnings
Highschool dropout
Highschool grad
College grad
Professional degree
What is intelligence?
Idea that the love of intelligence could create a demon
Francis Galton (1822-1911) and Eugenics
Mediocre in school but rich
Jealous of people doing well in school
o Noticed smart people had big heads
o Thought intelligence = head size
Described bell curve
Brittish at this time were very snooby
o Thought they were intelligent and had a right to rule the world
Social Darwinism = Eugenics
o Coded fingerprints by inkstains and cold/warm front on weather map
Believed intelligence was something to do with families
o Rich, famous, creative families
Entire family tree was successful
Couldn’t stand on a stump and preach, needed evidence
o Had to define intelligence:
A very powerful and efficient brain and nervous system
Determined by hereditary
o Used a biological definition
Has to measure intelligence in people and collect family stock
o Prediction: higher intelligence = successs in that family tree
o Measures circumference of skull
o Fast reaction times
o Ability to detect minor differences in things (like tuning forks)
Like a travelling carnival, tested townsfolk
o Gives a questionnaire -> first ever
Hypothesis is proved wrong
Still becomes an advocate for Eugenics
Eugenics ebbs and flows (currently in his favour)
o If some people are inheritedly superior by genetics, society should invest more in
those people
o Based on Eugenics -> Britain enforced poor law
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