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Midterm

PSYCH101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Random Assignment


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Study Guide
Midterm

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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM REVIEW
Textbook
INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY
MODULE 1: THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the
human mind (Edward Bradford Titchener)
Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioural processes function how
they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish (William James, as a result of Darwin’s theory of evolution)
Behaviourism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour without
reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists totally agree with (1), but not with (2) (John B. Watson
and B.F. Skinner)
Humanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy
people and the individual’s potential for personal growth (Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow)
Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including
perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Psychology the science of behaviour and mental process
Nature-nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience
make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours. Today’s science sees traits and behaviours arising
from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to
reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Levels of analysis the different complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for
analyzing any given phenomenon
Biopsychological approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural
levels of analysis
Perspective
Focus
Sample Questions
Neuroscience
How the body and brain enable
emotions, memories, and sensory
experiences
How are messages transmitted within
the body? How is blood chemistry linked
with moods and motives?
Evolutionary
How the natural selection of traits
promoted the survival of genes
How does evolution influence behaviour
tendencies?
Behaviour genetics
How much our genes and our
environment influence our individual
differences
To what extent are psychological traits
such as intelligence, personality, sexual
orientation, and vulnerability to

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depression attributable to our genes?
To our environment?
Perspective
Focus
Sample Questions
Psychodynamic
How behaviour springs from
unconscious drives and conflicts
How can someone’s personality traits
and disorders be explained in terms of
sexual and aggressive drives or as the
disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes
and childhood traumas?
Behavioural
How we learn observable responses
How do we learn to fear particular
objects or situations? What is the most
effective way to alter our behaviour,
say, to lose weight or stop smoking?
Cognitive
How we encode, process, store, and
retrieve information
How do we use information in
remembering? Reasoning? Solving
problems?
Social-cultural
How behaviour and thinking vary across
situations and cultures
How are we humans alike as members
of one human family? As products of
different environmental contexts, how
do we differ?
Basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Counselling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or
marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
Psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical
(for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
MODULE 2: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
Hindsight bias the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (a.k.a. the I-
knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
Critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept argiments and conclusions. Rather, it examines
assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Culture the enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted
from one generation to the next
MODULE 3: RESEARCH STRATEGIES: HOW PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS
Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours
or events
Hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Operational definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For
example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

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Replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations,
to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Case study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal
principles
Survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of a particular group, usually by
questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Population all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn (Note: except for national
studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population)
Random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of
inclusion
Naturalistic observation observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to
manipulate and control the situation
Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor
predicts the other (correlation does not necessarily mean causation)
Correlation coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
Scatterplots a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the
points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the
strength of the correlation (little scatter suggests high correlation)
Illusory correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists
Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables)
to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of
participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
Random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance , this minimizing pre-
existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
Double blind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research
staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
Commonly used in drug evaluation studies
Placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the
administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
Experimental group in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the
independent variable
Control group in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental
group and serves as comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
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