PSYCH101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Insomnia, Precognition, Depressant

95 views9 pages
Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH101
Professor
1
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM REVIEW
Textbook
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
MODULE 18: VISION
Transduction conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies,
such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret
Wavelength the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic
wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission
Hue the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names
blue, green, and so forth
Intensity the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as
determined by the wave’s amplitude
Pupil the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Iris a ring of muscle tissue that forms the coloured portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of
the pupil opening
Lens the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
Retina the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons
that begin the processing of visual information
Accommodation the process by which the eye’s lens
changes shape to focus near or far objects on the
retina
Fovea point of central focus on the retina, around
which the eye’s cones cluster (objects appear upside-
down)
Rods retinal receptors that detect black, white, and
gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when
cones don`t respond
Cones retinal receptor cells that are concentrated
near the center of the retina and that function in
daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine
detail and give rise to colour sensations
How it works
1. Light entering the eye triggers photochemical
reactions in rods and cones at the back of the retina
2. Chemical reaction in turn activates bipolar cells in
front of rods and cones
3. Bipolar cells then activate the ganglion cells (in
front of them), the axons of which converge to form
the optic nerve. This nerve transmits information to
the visual cortex (via the thalamus) in the brain
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
Optic nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Blind spot the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a `blind` spot because no receptor cells are
located there
Feature detectors nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle,
or movement
Parallel processing the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of
information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of
most computers and of conscious problem solving
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-colour) theory the theory that the retina contains three different colour
receptors one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue which, when stimulated in combination, can
produce the perception of any colour
Opponent-process theory the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black)
enable colour vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated
by red and inhibited by green (this theory was proven to be true, in contrast to the Young-Helmholtz theory)
MODULE 20: OTHER SENSES
Kinesthesis - the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
Vestibular sense the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
Gate-control theory the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or
allows them to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve
fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain
Sensory interaction the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its
taste
MODULE 21: PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION
Perceptual adaptation in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
Perceptual set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing as another (ex. the picture of the saxophone
player/face as only the saxophone player or only the face)
Human factors psychology a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how
machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
Extrasensory perception (ESP) the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input;
includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
Parapsychology the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
3
Purported
paranormal
phenomena "psi"
ESP
Extrasensory
perception
Telepathy
Clairvoyance
Precognition
PK
Psychokinesis
STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
MODULE 8: SLEEP AND DREAMS
Circadian rhythm the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that
occur on a 24-hour cycle
REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also
known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems
are active
Alpha waves the relatively low brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Sleep periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a
coma, general anaesthesia, or hibernation
Hallucinations false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Delta waves the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Insomnia recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into
REM sleep, often at inappropriate times
Sleep apnea a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated
momentary awakenings
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Transduction conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret. Wavelength the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission. Hue the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth. Intensity the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave"s amplitude. Pupil the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters. Iris a ring of muscle tissue that forms the coloured portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.